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International News Coverage of Human Trafficking Arrests and Prosecutions: A Content Analytic Study
Unformatted Document Text:  because they perceived that the young man had brought the young woman to the party in order to rape her. This double standard is also evident in the failure of those who claim that sexual exploitation is shaped by the male/female dichotomy (Busza, 2004; Derks, 2000; Doezema, 1998, 2000, 2002, 2003; Gulcur, 2002; Jeffreys, 1997, 1999; Savona et al., 1996; Shannon, 1999; Wijers 1998) to address the frequency of women perpetrating forced prostitution and other acts of sexual exploitation. The female human trafficking offender The female offender involved in human trafficking is the least researched and analyzed individual in the human trafficking process. I would suggest she is one of the most theoretically important elements of human trafficking given the literature that attributes human trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation to a male/female dichotomy purported to have been created by the patriarchal domination of society (Bertone, 1999; Derks, 2000; Gulcur, 2002; Gulcur & Ilkkaracan, 2002; Jeffreys, 1997, 1999; Savona et al., 1996). It is not unreasonable to conclude that a significant portion of human trafficking involves males, but it would be erroneous to suggest that men represent the entirety of the problem. The current study reveals that females are involved in human trafficking offences with and without their male counterparts. Indeed, female offenders are more likely to be involved in the sexual exploitative side of human trafficking and this is even more likely when they act alone, with other females, or as the head of a trafficking organization. Failure to recognize the female exploiter leaves the literature incomplete and based on questionable premises 66

Authors: Denton, Erin.
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because they perceived that the young man had brought the young woman to the 
party in order to rape her.  This double standard is also evident in the failure of 
those who claim that sexual exploitation is shaped by the male/female dichotomy 
(Busza, 2004; Derks, 2000; Doezema, 1998, 2000, 2002, 2003; Gulcur, 2002; 
Jeffreys, 1997, 1999; Savona et al., 1996; Shannon, 1999; Wijers 1998) to 
address the frequency of women perpetrating forced prostitution and other acts 
of sexual exploitation.
The female human trafficking offender
The female offender involved in human trafficking is the least researched 
and analyzed individual in the human trafficking process. I would suggest she is 
one of the most theoretically important elements of human trafficking given the 
literature that attributes human trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation to 
a male/female dichotomy purported to have been created by the patriarchal 
domination of society (Bertone, 1999; Derks, 2000; Gulcur, 2002; Gulcur & 
Ilkkaracan, 2002; Jeffreys, 1997, 1999; Savona et al., 1996).  It is not 
unreasonable to conclude that a significant portion of human trafficking involves 
males, but it would be erroneous to suggest that men represent the entirety of 
the problem.  The current study reveals that females are involved in human 
trafficking offences with and without their male counterparts.  Indeed, female 
offenders are more likely to be involved in the sexual exploitative side of human 
trafficking and this is even more likely when they act alone, with other females, or 
as the head of a trafficking organization.  Failure to recognize the female 
exploiter leaves the literature incomplete and based on questionable premises 

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