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International News Coverage of Human Trafficking Arrests and Prosecutions: A Content Analytic Study
Unformatted Document Text:  such as the male/female dichotomy and the domination of patriarchal ideals in the sex industry. As characterized by Malarek (2006), female victims of forced prostitution have indicated that the female trafficker is often more violent and more brutal than her male counterpart; however, it is possible that this perceived heightened violence and brutality by female traffickers is directly correlated to the belief that females are the more nurturing and caring gender. That is, the behaviour of female traffickers may be on par with their male counterparts and is only perceived to be more violent because the behaviour is out of character for the female gender. The failure of female offenders to remain in character based on gender standards is an interesting component of human trafficking, and general criminological, research. Fagan (1994) contends that female participation in deviant economies occurs as a result of the restructuring of social conditions in particular markets, as well as the expansion of illegal markets, which has increased roles for women. Mieczkowski (1994) echoes the role complexities of women involved in illicit activities, specifically roles of women involved in drug trafficking. Although Mieczkowski contends that female participation in the drug economy often occurs as a result of relationships with males already involved in drug trafficking, Fagan posits that female involvement may result in the perceived profitability of an illicit market. Fagan also hints at problems in research relating to female gender-role deviation and the perception that females are the more nurturing of the two genders. Focusing on gender deviance may create, as can be seen in human 67

Authors: Denton, Erin.
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such as the male/female dichotomy and the domination of patriarchal ideals in 
the sex industry.
As characterized by Malarek (2006), female victims of forced prostitution 
have indicated that the female trafficker is often more violent and more brutal 
than her male counterpart; however, it is possible that this perceived heightened 
violence and brutality by female traffickers is directly correlated to the belief that 
females are the more nurturing and caring gender.  That is, the behaviour of 
female traffickers may be on par with their male counterparts and is only 
perceived to be more violent because the behaviour is out of character for the 
female gender.  The failure of female offenders to remain in character based on 
gender standards is an interesting component of human trafficking, and general 
criminological, research.
Fagan (1994) contends that female participation in deviant economies 
occurs as a result of the restructuring of social conditions in particular markets, 
as well as the expansion of illegal markets, which has increased roles for women. 
Mieczkowski (1994) echoes the role complexities of women involved in illicit 
activities, specifically roles of women involved in drug trafficking.  Although 
Mieczkowski contends that female participation in the drug economy often occurs 
as a result of relationships with males already involved in drug trafficking, Fagan 
posits that female involvement may result in the perceived profitability of an illicit 
market.  Fagan also hints at problems in research relating to female gender-role 
deviation and the perception that females are the more nurturing of the two 
genders.  Focusing on gender deviance may create, as can be seen in human 
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