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Ecological Disadvantage and Robbery: A Spatial Analysis of Location Choice

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Abstract:

Quantitative and qualitative research findings demonstrate that crime is concentrated in small spatial entities. According to Sampson’s and St. Jean’s concept of ‘ecological disadvantage’, these ‘pockets of crime’ are characterized by the presence of businesses that attract people with cash money, such as liquor stores, fast food restaurants, or pawn shops. In addition, illegal activity that involves cash (such as drug dealing or prostitution) often generates other types of crime. This study aims to further our understanding of crime location choices by focusing on the census block as a micro place, and by assessing the influence of cash economies and social structure of all 24,000 census blocks on the spatial target choice of robbers in Chicago. The presentation will analyze 12,000 offender/incident pairs occurring from 1996 through 1998. Utilizing GIS, information on the ecological and social structure of each block, and random utility models, the paper will predict the location choice of robbers as they travel from their home base to the incident block. The study extends our earlier research on random utility maximization (RUM) models at the tract level and presents the smallest scale analysis of RUM ever attempted in criminology.
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Name: ASC Annual Meeting
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http://www.asc41.com


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URL: http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p372860_index.html
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MLA Citation:

Block, Richard. and Bernasco, Wim. "Ecological Disadvantage and Robbery: A Spatial Analysis of Location Choice" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, Philadelphia Marriott Downtown, Philadelphia, PA, <Not Available>. 2014-11-28 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p372860_index.html>

APA Citation:

Block, R. and Bernasco, W. "Ecological Disadvantage and Robbery: A Spatial Analysis of Location Choice" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, Philadelphia Marriott Downtown, Philadelphia, PA <Not Available>. 2014-11-28 from http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p372860_index.html

Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Quantitative and qualitative research findings demonstrate that crime is concentrated in small spatial entities. According to Sampson’s and St. Jean’s concept of ‘ecological disadvantage’, these ‘pockets of crime’ are characterized by the presence of businesses that attract people with cash money, such as liquor stores, fast food restaurants, or pawn shops. In addition, illegal activity that involves cash (such as drug dealing or prostitution) often generates other types of crime. This study aims to further our understanding of crime location choices by focusing on the census block as a micro place, and by assessing the influence of cash economies and social structure of all 24,000 census blocks on the spatial target choice of robbers in Chicago. The presentation will analyze 12,000 offender/incident pairs occurring from 1996 through 1998. Utilizing GIS, information on the ecological and social structure of each block, and random utility models, the paper will predict the location choice of robbers as they travel from their home base to the incident block. The study extends our earlier research on random utility maximization (RUM) models at the tract level and presents the smallest scale analysis of RUM ever attempted in criminology.


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