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Imprisoned Imperceptions: Inaccuracy in Incarceration Demographic Stereotypes
Unformatted Document Text:  Incarceration Beliefs Table 5 Raw discrepancies of students’ and commuters’ estimated prison population proportions Social Groups Actual Train Estimate Student Estimate Train Discrepancy Student Discrepancy df t U.S. Population in Prison 0.76 22.29 21.8 21.53 21.04 339 0.23 Female 7 25.34 19.34 18.34 12.34 334 3.43*** High School Graduate 56 31.71 30.78 -24.29 -25.22 339 0.43 Mentally Ill 15 32.68 31.18 17.68 16.18 333 0.57 White 35 28.96 30.67 -6.04 -4.33 339 0.9 Black 40 44.77 50.97 4.77 10.97 339 2.82** Latino 14 23.7 22.66 9.7 8.66 341 0.64 †p<.10*p<.05**p<.01***p<.001 Column 1 presents the individual social groups. Column 2 presents the actual proportion of the social group in the U.S. prison population. Column 3 presents the average estimates of participants from the train sample, and Column 4 presents the average estimates of participants from the criminal justice major sample. Column 5 presents the discrepancy between the train sample’s estimates and the actual proportion, and Column 6 presents the discrepancy between the criminal justice major sample and the actual proportion. Column 7 presents the degrees of freedom from the independent samples t-test comparing the train sample and student sample discrepancies, and Column 8 presents the results of that analysis. 37

Authors: Ragusa, Laura.
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Incarceration Beliefs
Table 5
Raw discrepancies of students’ and commuters’ estimated prison population proportions
Social Groups
Actual
Train 
Estimate
Student 
Estimate
Train 
Discrepancy
Student 
Discrepancy
df
t
U.S. Population in 
Prison
0.76
22.29
21.8
21.53
21.04
339
0.23
Female
7
25.34
19.34
18.34
12.34
334
3.43***
High School Graduate
56
31.71
30.78
-24.29
-25.22
339
0.43
Mentally Ill
15
32.68
31.18
17.68
16.18
333
0.57
White
35
28.96
30.67
-6.04
-4.33
339
0.9
Black
40
44.77
50.97
4.77
10.97
339
2.82**
Latino
14
23.7
22.66
9.7
8.66
341
0.64
†p<.10
*p<.05
**p<.01
***p<.001
Column 1 presents the individual social groups. Column 2 presents the actual proportion of the social 
group in the U.S. prison population. Column 3 presents the average estimates of participants from the 
train sample, and Column 4 presents the average estimates of participants from the criminal justice 
major sample. Column 5 presents the discrepancy between the train sample’s estimates and the actual 
proportion, and Column 6 presents the discrepancy between the criminal justice major sample and the 
actual proportion. Column 7 presents the degrees of freedom from the independent samples t-test 
comparing the train sample and student sample discrepancies, and Column 8 presents 
the results of that analysis.
37


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