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Imprisoned Imperceptions: Inaccuracy in Incarceration Demographic Stereotypes
Unformatted Document Text:  Incarceration Beliefs Table 6 Raw discrepancies between the estimated and actual proportions for U.S. population and accuracy estimates Social Groups Actual Estimate Raw Discrepancy df t n ≤10% n 10.1 – 20% n >20% Female 51 52.17 1.17(10.41) 342 2.09* 279 42 22 High School Graduate 84.2 67.14 -17.06(16.04) 340 19.64*** 142 91 108 Mentally Ill 5 22.57 17.57(17.82) 334 18.05*** 157 70 108 White 74.7 57.93 -16.77(14.14) 342 21.96*** 130 88 125 Black 12.1 26.9 14.80(13.63) 343 20.14*** 141 123 80 Latino 14.5 21.63 7.13(13.69) 341 9.63*** 228 61 53 *p<.05***p<.001 Column 1 presents the individual social groups. Column 2 presents the actual proportion of the social group in the U.S. prison population. Column 3 presents participants’ average estimates of these proportions. This measure is simply the numerical average of each participant’s estimate of that social group’s proportion in the population. This is the overall average of the sample estimates, and, therefore, represents the consensual stereotype. Column 4 presents the raw discrepancy score. This is simply the difference between the actual proportion in Column 2 and the estimated proportion in Column 3. This value represents accuracy at the group level, because it compares the mean of the group estimate to the criterion. Column 5 presents degrees of freedom from the single sample t-tests performed on the raw discrepancy scores, and column 6 presents the results of that analysis. Column 7 indicates the number of participants who accurately perceived the social group. Column 8 indicates the number of participants who had a near miss in their accuracy for the social group. Column 9 indicates the number of participants who inaccurately perceived the social group. 38

Authors: Ragusa, Laura.
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Incarceration Beliefs
Table 6 
Raw discrepancies between the estimated and actual proportions for U.S. population and accuracy estimates 
Social Groups
Actual Estimate Raw Discrepancy
df
t
10% 
10.1 – 20% 
>20%
Female
51
52.17
1.17(10.41)
342
2.09*
279
42
22
High School Graduate
84.2
67.14
-17.06(16.04)
340
19.64***
142
91
108
Mentally Ill
5
22.57
17.57(17.82)
334
18.05***
157
70
108
White
74.7
57.93
-16.77(14.14)
342
21.96***
130
88
125
Black
12.1
26.9
14.80(13.63)
343
20.14***
141
123
80
Latino
14.5
21.63
7.13(13.69)
341
9.63***
228
61
53
*p<.05
***p<.001
Column 1 presents the individual social groups. Column 2 presents the actual proportion of the social group in the U.S. prison 
population. Column 3 presents participants’ average estimates of these proportions. This measure is simply the numerical average of 
each participant’s estimate of that social group’s proportion in the population.  This is the overall average of the sample estimates, and, 
therefore, represents the consensual stereotype.  Column 4 presents the raw discrepancy score.  This is simply the difference between 
the actual proportion in Column 2 and the estimated proportion in Column 3. This value represents accuracy at the group level, because 
it compares the mean of the group estimate to the criterion. Column 5 presents degrees of freedom from the single sample t-tests 
performed on the raw discrepancy scores, and column 6 presents the results of that analysis. Column 7 indicates the number of 
participants who accurately perceived the social group. Column 8 indicates the number of participants who had a near miss in their 
accuracy for the social group. Column 9 indicates the number of participants who inaccurately perceived the social group.
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