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Presidential TV Commercials: Isolating the Key Lexical Characteristics of "Winners" and "Losers," 1952-2004
Unformatted Document Text:  Presidential TV Commercials unexpected or chance factors that have larger implications.” With this exploratory approach in mind, we also tested hypotheses 3 through 9. H3: Certainty will go down over time. This hypothesis was based on Hart and Childer’s (2004) finding and graph showing a steep decline in certainty in presidential candidates’ speeches between 1948 and 2000. H4: Familiarity should go up over time. H5: Collectives should go up over time. H6: Inspiration should go up over time. H7: Inspiration should be positively correlated with winning. H8: Accomplishment should go up over time, and the Accomplishment scores of winners should be higher than those of losers. H9: Rapport should go up over time. Finally, based on prior research results pertaining to the Diction variable Optimism, one additional hypothesis was also tested: H10: Commercials of winners will be higher on Optimism than will the commercials of losers. This hypothesis was based on earlier research on Optimism (Davis, Piger & Sedor, 2006; Lowry, Xie & Witte, 2008; Lowry, 2008). Method 11

Authors: Lowry, Dennis. and Naser, Md..
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Presidential TV Commercials     
unexpected or chance factors that have larger implications.”  With this exploratory 
approach in mind, we also tested hypotheses 3 through 9. 
H3: Certainty will go down over time.  This hypothesis was based on Hart and 
Childer’s (2004) finding and graph showing a steep decline in certainty in 
presidential candidates’ speeches between 1948 and 2000.
H4: Familiarity should go up over time.  
H5: Collectives should go up over time.  
H6: Inspiration should go up over time.  
H7: Inspiration should be positively correlated with winning. 
H8: Accomplishment should go up over time, and the Accomplishment scores of 
winners should be higher than those of losers. 
H9: Rapport should go up over time.  
Finally, based on prior research results pertaining to the Diction variable 
Optimism, one additional hypothesis was also tested:
H10: Commercials of winners will be higher on Optimism than will the 
commercials of losers.  This hypothesis was based on earlier research on 
Optimism (Davis, Piger & Sedor, 2006; Lowry, Xie & Witte, 2008; Lowry, 

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