Citation

Effects of Emotional Responses to Televised Ads in the 2008 U.S. Presidential Campaign

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Abstract:

Despite advances in new technologies and the Internet, televised political advertising remains the dominant form of candidate to voter communication in U.S. presidential campaigns. Political media practitioners and scholars have long argued that evoking emotional responses in viewers is an important and effective result of political advertising exposure (Kaid, 2006). Some theorists have argued that there is a direct relationship between advertising content in political spots and the emotional responses generated by the spots (Lang, 1991; Newhagen & Reeves, 1991).
Emotions evoked by advertising may affect patterns of cognitive processing and thus information recall (Markus, 2000). Other research suggests that emotional responses to political ads have more direct effects on candidate evaluations (Tedesco & Kaid, 2003), on cognitive learning during campaigns, and sometimes on vote choices and political system attitudes (political cynicism and political information efficacy). This project reports the results of experimental procedures used in the 2008 U.S. campaign to measure the relationship of emotions generated by Obama and McCain ads to evaluations of the candidates. Experiments took place in late September (N = 965) and again in late October (N = 1165). Participants were young citizens at more than 20 universities throughout the United States. The research found few significant relationships between emotional responses to Obama’s ads and evaluations of Obama at either time, but exposure to McCain’s ads generated significant emotional responses, often in a negative direction, related to his evaluations for emotions such as optimism, confidence, fear, and anger. Results also documented gender differences in emotional responses to the candidates and explored the relationship between emotions and issue/image learning and voter political information efficacy.
References:
Kaid, L. L. (2006): Political advertising in the United States. In L.L. Kaid & C. Holtz-Bacha (Eds.), The Sage Handbook of Political Advertising (pp. 83-108). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Lang, A. (1991): Emotion, formal features, and memory for televised political
advertisements. In F. Biocca, Ed., Television and Political Advertising, Volume 1
(pp. 221-243). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Markus, G.E. (2000): Emotion in politics. Annual Review of Political Science, 3,
221-250.
Newhagen, J. E., & Reeves, B. (1991): Emotion and memory responses for negative
political advertising: A study of television commercials used in the 1988
presidential election. In F. Biocca (Ed.), Television and political advertising,
Volume 1 (pp. 197-220). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Tedesco, J. C., & Kaid, L. L. (2003): Style and effects of the Bush and Gore spots. In L.
L. Kaid, J.C. Tedesco, D. Bystrom, & M.S. McKinney (Eds.), The millennium
election: Communication in the 2000 campaigns (pp. 5-16). Lanham, MD:
Rowman & Littlefield.
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Association:
Name: International Communication Association
URL:
http://www.icahdq.org


Citation:
URL: http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p403524_index.html
Direct Link:
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MLA Citation:

Kaid, Lynda., Dunton Miles, Maridith A.. and Painter, David. "Effects of Emotional Responses to Televised Ads in the 2008 U.S. Presidential Campaign" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Suntec Singapore International Convention & Exhibition Centre, Suntec City, Singapore, <Not Available>. 2014-11-27 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p403524_index.html>

APA Citation:

Kaid, L. L., Dunton Miles, M. and Painter, D. L. "Effects of Emotional Responses to Televised Ads in the 2008 U.S. Presidential Campaign" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Suntec Singapore International Convention & Exhibition Centre, Suntec City, Singapore <Not Available>. 2014-11-27 from http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p403524_index.html

Publication Type: Session Paper
Abstract: Despite advances in new technologies and the Internet, televised political advertising remains the dominant form of candidate to voter communication in U.S. presidential campaigns. Political media practitioners and scholars have long argued that evoking emotional responses in viewers is an important and effective result of political advertising exposure (Kaid, 2006). Some theorists have argued that there is a direct relationship between advertising content in political spots and the emotional responses generated by the spots (Lang, 1991; Newhagen & Reeves, 1991).
Emotions evoked by advertising may affect patterns of cognitive processing and thus information recall (Markus, 2000). Other research suggests that emotional responses to political ads have more direct effects on candidate evaluations (Tedesco & Kaid, 2003), on cognitive learning during campaigns, and sometimes on vote choices and political system attitudes (political cynicism and political information efficacy). This project reports the results of experimental procedures used in the 2008 U.S. campaign to measure the relationship of emotions generated by Obama and McCain ads to evaluations of the candidates. Experiments took place in late September (N = 965) and again in late October (N = 1165). Participants were young citizens at more than 20 universities throughout the United States. The research found few significant relationships between emotional responses to Obama’s ads and evaluations of Obama at either time, but exposure to McCain’s ads generated significant emotional responses, often in a negative direction, related to his evaluations for emotions such as optimism, confidence, fear, and anger. Results also documented gender differences in emotional responses to the candidates and explored the relationship between emotions and issue/image learning and voter political information efficacy.
References:
Kaid, L. L. (2006): Political advertising in the United States. In L.L. Kaid & C. Holtz-Bacha (Eds.), The Sage Handbook of Political Advertising (pp. 83-108). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Lang, A. (1991): Emotion, formal features, and memory for televised political
advertisements. In F. Biocca, Ed., Television and Political Advertising, Volume 1
(pp. 221-243). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Markus, G.E. (2000): Emotion in politics. Annual Review of Political Science, 3,
221-250.
Newhagen, J. E., & Reeves, B. (1991): Emotion and memory responses for negative
political advertising: A study of television commercials used in the 1988
presidential election. In F. Biocca (Ed.), Television and political advertising,
Volume 1 (pp. 197-220). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Tedesco, J. C., & Kaid, L. L. (2003): Style and effects of the Bush and Gore spots. In L.
L. Kaid, J.C. Tedesco, D. Bystrom, & M.S. McKinney (Eds.), The millennium
election: Communication in the 2000 campaigns (pp. 5-16). Lanham, MD:
Rowman & Littlefield.


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