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Inequality in private resource of secondary education in Hong Kong: An ordered logit approach

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Abstract:

Many developed countries see education as a basic human right. Given the difference in ability to pay, most of these governments have implemented free and compulsory education to ensure the equity of access to education. For this same reason and increasing returns for skilled labor, the Hong Kong government has recently extended the nine years of free and compulsory education implemented since 1971 to twelve years, including two years of senior high school. Nevertheless, free education is not at all free. Households pay many non-tuition costs associate with tutoring, school fees, transportation, uniform, which can be a substantial burden to households and schools. The inequality in private resources may continue to exacerbate the future income inequality in Hong Kong. In light of this, this paper studies the private resources for secondary education in Hong Kong. This study examines the PISA data from the OECD with ordered logistic regressions to look at two research questions: first, how do private resources for secondary education vary by student, family, and school characteristic? Second, what are the key determinants of private educational resources? The results indicated that household backgrounds, students’ characteristics, and school characteristics are all significant determinants of education cost. Especially, socioeconomic status, defined by parental income, education, and occupation, are highly correlated to higher education costs. Families that send their children to private tutoring also have higher education costs. The discussion section makes recommendations in bridging the gap of private resources and ensuring quality education for all.
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Association:
Name: 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society
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http://www.cies.us


Citation:
URL: http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p486002_index.html
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MLA Citation:

Liu, Yuen Ting (Vivian). "Inequality in private resource of secondary education in Hong Kong: An ordered logit approach" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Fairmont Le Reine Elizabeth, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, May 01, 2011 <Not Available>. 2014-11-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p486002_index.html>

APA Citation:

Liu, Y. , 2011-05-01 "Inequality in private resource of secondary education in Hong Kong: An ordered logit approach" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Fairmont Le Reine Elizabeth, Montreal, Quebec, Canada <Not Available>. 2014-11-26 from http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p486002_index.html

Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Many developed countries see education as a basic human right. Given the difference in ability to pay, most of these governments have implemented free and compulsory education to ensure the equity of access to education. For this same reason and increasing returns for skilled labor, the Hong Kong government has recently extended the nine years of free and compulsory education implemented since 1971 to twelve years, including two years of senior high school. Nevertheless, free education is not at all free. Households pay many non-tuition costs associate with tutoring, school fees, transportation, uniform, which can be a substantial burden to households and schools. The inequality in private resources may continue to exacerbate the future income inequality in Hong Kong. In light of this, this paper studies the private resources for secondary education in Hong Kong. This study examines the PISA data from the OECD with ordered logistic regressions to look at two research questions: first, how do private resources for secondary education vary by student, family, and school characteristic? Second, what are the key determinants of private educational resources? The results indicated that household backgrounds, students’ characteristics, and school characteristics are all significant determinants of education cost. Especially, socioeconomic status, defined by parental income, education, and occupation, are highly correlated to higher education costs. Families that send their children to private tutoring also have higher education costs. The discussion section makes recommendations in bridging the gap of private resources and ensuring quality education for all.


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