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Is education now a social vaccine against HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa? The effect of Sschooling across age cohorts

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Abstract:

Early in the HIV/AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa, epidemiological studies atypically identified formal education attainment as a risk factor: Educated sub-Saharan Africans had a higher disease burden than their less educated peers. Although some demographic research indicates that by the mid-1990s the education effect had reversed, there is still contradictory evidence as a recent major analysis reports that education still acts as a HIV/AIDS risk factor (Fortson 2008). This and related analyses, however, fail to account for possible interaction between education and age cohort reflecting reaching sexual maturity at different points during the shifting political-informational environment over the course of the pandemic. Fortson’s analysis of DHS data from five sub-Saharan national samples is replicated, but in order to take into account for the differentiated effect among periods or stages of the disease and age-cohorts, we used a non-linear multilevel cross-classified random effects model. Our preliminary findings indicate that starting from the cohort who reached sexual maturity in the mid-1990s, more schooling is associated with lower likelihood of HIV/AIDS infection. Therefore, in this study, we present an explanation of why over the course of the HIV pandemic in Africa education shifted from an atypical risk factor to a usual social vaccine effect along with implications for future research and policy on education and population health.

Author's Keywords:

AIDS
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Association:
Name: 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society
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http://www.cies.us


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URL: http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p486333_index.html
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MLA Citation:

Baker, David., Leon Jara Almonte, Juan., Salinas, Daniel., Jeon, Haram. and Henck, Adrienne. "Is education now a social vaccine against HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa? The effect of Sschooling across age cohorts" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Fairmont Le Reine Elizabeth, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, May 01, 2011 <Not Available>. 2014-11-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p486333_index.html>

APA Citation:

Baker, D. , Leon Jara Almonte, J. , Salinas, D. R., Jeon, H. and Henck, A. , 2011-05-01 "Is education now a social vaccine against HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa? The effect of Sschooling across age cohorts" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Fairmont Le Reine Elizabeth, Montreal, Quebec, Canada <Not Available>. 2014-11-26 from http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p486333_index.html

Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Early in the HIV/AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa, epidemiological studies atypically identified formal education attainment as a risk factor: Educated sub-Saharan Africans had a higher disease burden than their less educated peers. Although some demographic research indicates that by the mid-1990s the education effect had reversed, there is still contradictory evidence as a recent major analysis reports that education still acts as a HIV/AIDS risk factor (Fortson 2008). This and related analyses, however, fail to account for possible interaction between education and age cohort reflecting reaching sexual maturity at different points during the shifting political-informational environment over the course of the pandemic. Fortson’s analysis of DHS data from five sub-Saharan national samples is replicated, but in order to take into account for the differentiated effect among periods or stages of the disease and age-cohorts, we used a non-linear multilevel cross-classified random effects model. Our preliminary findings indicate that starting from the cohort who reached sexual maturity in the mid-1990s, more schooling is associated with lower likelihood of HIV/AIDS infection. Therefore, in this study, we present an explanation of why over the course of the HIV pandemic in Africa education shifted from an atypical risk factor to a usual social vaccine effect along with implications for future research and policy on education and population health.


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