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Past, present, future: Institutional models of the research university in Germany, US, and China, and the future of scientific research

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Abstract:

This paper reports on cross-national analyses of university enrollment, societal support, and scientific knowledge production data, plus historical accounts, over the 20th century. A three-part hypothesis is tested: 1) initially Germany developed a successful institutional model for the research university that ultimately failed over the 20th century because of its elitist ideology of limited education; 2) mostly unintentionally, the U.S. merged parts of the Germany model with an ideology of mass education that has produced a greatly expanded super-research university model; and, 3) China has borrowed features from both models with contrasting consequences for its future science production. Over the 18th Century, Germany created a model for the research university that significantly transformed the knowledge production capacity of the traditional western university, based on the ideas of stratifying education access by social classes of the late feudal order. Many nations, including most notably the U.S., borrowed parts of this model in the development of universities. The success of the Germany model dwindled after WW II, and it has experienced a crisis of productivity and legitimating. Over the 20th century the dual forces of mass education and the rise of the ‘super research university’ created a uniquely American model of higher education, one that continues to spread and has already changed the global higher education landscape. For example, China, after learning from the German, Japanese, and Soviet Union in history, has set up a higher education system acting as a hybrid between both German and U.S. models. Due to their different development stages and historical origins, we compare Germany, the United States, and China by examining factors such as trends in enrollment, funding, expenditures, publication productivity, and patents from longitudinal institutional data. Analyses confirm the hypothesis, and the paper draws policy implications for the future of the research university worldwide.
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Association:
Name: 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society
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http://www.cies.us


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URL: http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p486402_index.html
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MLA Citation:

Baker, David., Fleishman, Shannon., Lee, Kristen. and Luo, Yuan. "Past, present, future: Institutional models of the research university in Germany, US, and China, and the future of scientific research" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Fairmont Le Reine Elizabeth, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, May 01, 2011 <Not Available>. 2014-11-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p486402_index.html>

APA Citation:

Baker, D. , Fleishman, S. , Lee, K. and Luo, Y. , 2011-05-01 "Past, present, future: Institutional models of the research university in Germany, US, and China, and the future of scientific research" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Fairmont Le Reine Elizabeth, Montreal, Quebec, Canada <Not Available>. 2014-11-26 from http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p486402_index.html

Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper reports on cross-national analyses of university enrollment, societal support, and scientific knowledge production data, plus historical accounts, over the 20th century. A three-part hypothesis is tested: 1) initially Germany developed a successful institutional model for the research university that ultimately failed over the 20th century because of its elitist ideology of limited education; 2) mostly unintentionally, the U.S. merged parts of the Germany model with an ideology of mass education that has produced a greatly expanded super-research university model; and, 3) China has borrowed features from both models with contrasting consequences for its future science production. Over the 18th Century, Germany created a model for the research university that significantly transformed the knowledge production capacity of the traditional western university, based on the ideas of stratifying education access by social classes of the late feudal order. Many nations, including most notably the U.S., borrowed parts of this model in the development of universities. The success of the Germany model dwindled after WW II, and it has experienced a crisis of productivity and legitimating. Over the 20th century the dual forces of mass education and the rise of the ‘super research university’ created a uniquely American model of higher education, one that continues to spread and has already changed the global higher education landscape. For example, China, after learning from the German, Japanese, and Soviet Union in history, has set up a higher education system acting as a hybrid between both German and U.S. models. Due to their different development stages and historical origins, we compare Germany, the United States, and China by examining factors such as trends in enrollment, funding, expenditures, publication productivity, and patents from longitudinal institutional data. Analyses confirm the hypothesis, and the paper draws policy implications for the future of the research university worldwide.


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