Citation

GROUP 1. After apology: Public education as redress for Japanese American and Canadian internment

Abstract | Word Stems | Keywords | Association | Citation | Similar Titles



Abstract:

In 1988, activists in the United States and Canada achieved a long-sought goal: official acknowledgment of civil rights violations and compensation for suffering experienced by persons of Japanese descent in World War II internment camps. But, to truly achieve redress, Japanese American and Japanese Canadian activists believed that the public needed to be better educated about the causes and consequences of the internment. School children, as future citizens, needed to learn about the dangers that racism, war hysteria, and economic jealousy pose to civil liberties in multiethnic, democratic societies. Redress activists thus saw to it that earmarks for a federal Civil Liberties Public Education Fund (CLPEF) in the U.S. and the Japanese Canadian Redress Foundation’s (JCRF) public education program accompanied apologies extended in 1988 (Robinson 2009).

My dissertation compares efforts to educate the public about the internment of Japanese Americans and Canadians. By investigating (1) outcomes of public education programs about the internment in the United States and Canada, this research fills a significant gap as few comparative studies about internment or redress have been undertaken and no systematic study of public education programs in either country exists. To examine (2) how redress activists challenged “official knowledge” about the internment via public education programs, I will conduct interviews with the redress activists who spearheaded the CLPEF and JCRF to reveal how their sense of national identity shaped tactics they used to challenge narratives about the internment. By analyzing curricular standards, textbooks, and other sources, I will explore how these strategies resonated with the public in each country. In so doing, I will illuminate differences in American and Canadian views on national identity, multiculturalism, and education (Richardson 2002; Zimmerman 2005).

Making amends for historical injustices is a task facing not only these countries, however. In this “age of apology,” nations worldwide struggle with addressing past wrongs and deciding what schools should teach about ugly chapters of their pasts (Barkan 2001; Hein and Selden 2000). To explore (3) the extent to which national identity – particularly how it reconciles national unity with cultural diversity – influences the achievement of redress, I will conduct interviews with grant recipients to inquire why they applied, how their projects were received, and whether their projects are still in use. I will also investigate how frequently – and to whom – resources created by the public education programs are loaned out from repositories such as the Japanese American and Japanese Canadian National Museums and the California and Washington Civil Liberties Programs. Therefore, at its broadest level, my study explores how democratic nations recognize diversity while maintaining national unity (Taylor 1995).

Key similarities between the U.S. and Canada make this a viable and important comparison. Parties to NAFTA, founded by Anglo-Saxon settlers, and home to indigenous populations and generations of immigrants, they share similar economic, political, and social contours (Kaufman 2009). Education is decentralized in both nations, and pedagogical trends in the U.S. are frequently adopted in Canada (Clark 2004). Although the ethnic Japanese population in Canada is smaller than that in the U.S., these groups are proportionate relative to the total population and in concentration along the Pacific coast of each country (U.S. Census 2002; Statistics Canada 2006). Canada and the U.S. also share the dishonor of having interned persons of Japanese descent during World War II, and witnessed parallel redress movements in the 1970s (Miki 2005; Murray 2007). Yet these stories – so similar in their origins – diverge sharply after the 1988 apologies. By conducting a comparative historical case study, I will test my hypothesis that the U.S. program benefited from conceptions of American identity held by redress activists and the public alike, whereas Japanese Canadian redress activists appear to have been less empowered by a sense of Canadian identity.

By the time of the CIES conference, I will be in the fieldwork stage of this research. Under the guidance of Philip Hosay (chair), Jonathan Zimmerman, and James Fraser, I will defend my dissertation proposal in December 2010. I will then conduct archival research and qualitative interviews in Los Angeles, CA (January 2011) and Seattle, WA (March 2011), which will build upon pilot studies conducted in San Francisco, CA (March 2010) and Vancouver, BC (May 2010). I will conduct data analysis and follow-up research during summer 2011, and I aim to defend my dissertation by May 2012. Consequently, the opportunity to present and receive feedback on my work at the CIES 2011 New Scholars Workshop will be incredibly helpful as my project takes shape.
Convention
Need a solution for abstract management? All Academic can help! Contact us today to find out how our system can help your annual meeting.
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

Association:
Name: 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society
URL:
http://www.cies.us


Citation:
URL: http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p492488_index.html
Direct Link:
HTML Code:

MLA Citation:

Wood, Alexandra. "GROUP 1. After apology: Public education as redress for Japanese American and Canadian internment" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Fairmont Le Reine Elizabeth, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, May 01, 2011 <Not Available>. 2014-11-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p492488_index.html>

APA Citation:

Wood, A. L. , 2011-05-01 "GROUP 1. After apology: Public education as redress for Japanese American and Canadian internment" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Fairmont Le Reine Elizabeth, Montreal, Quebec, Canada <Not Available>. 2014-11-26 from http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p492488_index.html

Publication Type: CIES New Scholar Fellow Proposal
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In 1988, activists in the United States and Canada achieved a long-sought goal: official acknowledgment of civil rights violations and compensation for suffering experienced by persons of Japanese descent in World War II internment camps. But, to truly achieve redress, Japanese American and Japanese Canadian activists believed that the public needed to be better educated about the causes and consequences of the internment. School children, as future citizens, needed to learn about the dangers that racism, war hysteria, and economic jealousy pose to civil liberties in multiethnic, democratic societies. Redress activists thus saw to it that earmarks for a federal Civil Liberties Public Education Fund (CLPEF) in the U.S. and the Japanese Canadian Redress Foundation’s (JCRF) public education program accompanied apologies extended in 1988 (Robinson 2009).

My dissertation compares efforts to educate the public about the internment of Japanese Americans and Canadians. By investigating (1) outcomes of public education programs about the internment in the United States and Canada, this research fills a significant gap as few comparative studies about internment or redress have been undertaken and no systematic study of public education programs in either country exists. To examine (2) how redress activists challenged “official knowledge” about the internment via public education programs, I will conduct interviews with the redress activists who spearheaded the CLPEF and JCRF to reveal how their sense of national identity shaped tactics they used to challenge narratives about the internment. By analyzing curricular standards, textbooks, and other sources, I will explore how these strategies resonated with the public in each country. In so doing, I will illuminate differences in American and Canadian views on national identity, multiculturalism, and education (Richardson 2002; Zimmerman 2005).

Making amends for historical injustices is a task facing not only these countries, however. In this “age of apology,” nations worldwide struggle with addressing past wrongs and deciding what schools should teach about ugly chapters of their pasts (Barkan 2001; Hein and Selden 2000). To explore (3) the extent to which national identity – particularly how it reconciles national unity with cultural diversity – influences the achievement of redress, I will conduct interviews with grant recipients to inquire why they applied, how their projects were received, and whether their projects are still in use. I will also investigate how frequently – and to whom – resources created by the public education programs are loaned out from repositories such as the Japanese American and Japanese Canadian National Museums and the California and Washington Civil Liberties Programs. Therefore, at its broadest level, my study explores how democratic nations recognize diversity while maintaining national unity (Taylor 1995).

Key similarities between the U.S. and Canada make this a viable and important comparison. Parties to NAFTA, founded by Anglo-Saxon settlers, and home to indigenous populations and generations of immigrants, they share similar economic, political, and social contours (Kaufman 2009). Education is decentralized in both nations, and pedagogical trends in the U.S. are frequently adopted in Canada (Clark 2004). Although the ethnic Japanese population in Canada is smaller than that in the U.S., these groups are proportionate relative to the total population and in concentration along the Pacific coast of each country (U.S. Census 2002; Statistics Canada 2006). Canada and the U.S. also share the dishonor of having interned persons of Japanese descent during World War II, and witnessed parallel redress movements in the 1970s (Miki 2005; Murray 2007). Yet these stories – so similar in their origins – diverge sharply after the 1988 apologies. By conducting a comparative historical case study, I will test my hypothesis that the U.S. program benefited from conceptions of American identity held by redress activists and the public alike, whereas Japanese Canadian redress activists appear to have been less empowered by a sense of Canadian identity.

By the time of the CIES conference, I will be in the fieldwork stage of this research. Under the guidance of Philip Hosay (chair), Jonathan Zimmerman, and James Fraser, I will defend my dissertation proposal in December 2010. I will then conduct archival research and qualitative interviews in Los Angeles, CA (January 2011) and Seattle, WA (March 2011), which will build upon pilot studies conducted in San Francisco, CA (March 2010) and Vancouver, BC (May 2010). I will conduct data analysis and follow-up research during summer 2011, and I aim to defend my dissertation by May 2012. Consequently, the opportunity to present and receive feedback on my work at the CIES 2011 New Scholars Workshop will be incredibly helpful as my project takes shape.


Similar Titles:
After apology: Public education as redress for Japanese, American, and Canadian internment

North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education

Internationalization in public universities: A comparison of international students in Brazilian and American higher education


 
All Academic, Inc. is your premier source for research and conference management. Visit our website, www.allacademic.com, to see how we can help you today.