Citation

International trends in grade repetition policies and practices

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Abstract:

Each year millions of children worldwide repeat their previous grade level. Grade repetition aims to give children who have failed to meet grade-level standards another opportunity to acquire those skills, as well as provides a disincentive for failing to meet those standards. However, research over the past century has continually revealed negative consequences of repetition including increased risk of dropout and high economic costs. This paper presents an overview of the trends and research regarding grade repetition across countries in an effort to provide a better understanding of the effectiveness of grade repetition under varying contexts. I detail the historical background of repetition policies and research, explore how countries’ educational philosophies are linked to their repetition rates, compare how background and school factors are linked to the likelihood of repetition across countries, discuss forms of grade repetition, summarize the consequences of repetition and automatic promotion found in international education research, and examine policy recommendations posed by researchers and policy advocates. I find that the existing literature largely proposes an end to the practice of grade repetition, calling instead for automatic promotion policies. However, the perceived usefulness and success of repetition and promotion policies differs greatly across countries and is dependent upon historical and cultural contexts. This paper demonstrates that grade repetition is a complex policy that must be formulated and evaluated with knowledge of individual countries’ contexts in mind.

Author's Keywords:

Grade Repetition
Convention
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Association:
Name: 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society
URL:
http://www.cies.us


Citation:
URL: http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p492628_index.html
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MLA Citation:

Neergaard, Laura. "International trends in grade repetition policies and practices" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Fairmont Le Reine Elizabeth, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, May 01, 2011 <Not Available>. 2014-11-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p492628_index.html>

APA Citation:

Neergaard, L. L. , 2011-05-01 "International trends in grade repetition policies and practices" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Fairmont Le Reine Elizabeth, Montreal, Quebec, Canada <Not Available>. 2014-11-26 from http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p492628_index.html

Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Each year millions of children worldwide repeat their previous grade level. Grade repetition aims to give children who have failed to meet grade-level standards another opportunity to acquire those skills, as well as provides a disincentive for failing to meet those standards. However, research over the past century has continually revealed negative consequences of repetition including increased risk of dropout and high economic costs. This paper presents an overview of the trends and research regarding grade repetition across countries in an effort to provide a better understanding of the effectiveness of grade repetition under varying contexts. I detail the historical background of repetition policies and research, explore how countries’ educational philosophies are linked to their repetition rates, compare how background and school factors are linked to the likelihood of repetition across countries, discuss forms of grade repetition, summarize the consequences of repetition and automatic promotion found in international education research, and examine policy recommendations posed by researchers and policy advocates. I find that the existing literature largely proposes an end to the practice of grade repetition, calling instead for automatic promotion policies. However, the perceived usefulness and success of repetition and promotion policies differs greatly across countries and is dependent upon historical and cultural contexts. This paper demonstrates that grade repetition is a complex policy that must be formulated and evaluated with knowledge of individual countries’ contexts in mind.


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