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Clark's triangle model in understanding the development of higher education programs: Case studies of the U.S., Germany, China, and Japan

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Abstract:

The field of higher education administration educates decision makers in both top-level policy making and middle-level policy implementation levels. Given that colleges and universities are crucial engines in today's knowledge society and global economy, the importance of the higher education field cannot be overstated. The primary purpose of this study is to understand the development and practice of higher education administration programs that award master's and doctoral degrees from a comparative perspective.

This study utilizes Burton Clark's triangle model as a conceptual framework for understanding the relationship between government, the academy, and the market (i.e., students) in the formulation and development of higher education administration programs in four countries: the US, Germany, China, and Japan. For methods, this study collected data from individual interviews with higher education faculty from these four countries and their research reports about higher education programs in each country.

Based on findings, a typology revealing three categories of higher education administration programs was generated: (1) market oriented; (2) government initiated; and (3) middle-ground compromised. The US offers a typical consumer-oriented model where higher education administrators play major roles in offering extra-curricular and out-of-classroom learning opportunities for college students. This tendency is strongly influenced by the demands of students and their parents who seek out these types of services in college. The government-initiated model exists in China where higher education as a field of research and professionals is still under development (which, in turn, emphasizes the governmental role in developing higher education administration programs). Japan and Germany, on the other hand, represent middle-ground compromise with a strong influence from academics and universities. With this comparative case study, we see the potential and future directions for other countries that seek to implement or revise higher education administration programs.
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Association:
Name: 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society
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http://www.cies.us


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URL: http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p493289_index.html
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MLA Citation:

Lee, Heeyoung., Byun, Kiyong. and Jon, Jae-Eun. "Clark's triangle model in understanding the development of higher education programs: Case studies of the U.S., Germany, China, and Japan" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Fairmont Le Reine Elizabeth, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Apr 30, 2011 <Not Available>. 2014-11-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p493289_index.html>

APA Citation:

Lee, H. , Byun, K. and Jon, J. , 2011-04-30 "Clark's triangle model in understanding the development of higher education programs: Case studies of the U.S., Germany, China, and Japan" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Fairmont Le Reine Elizabeth, Montreal, Quebec, Canada <Not Available>. 2014-11-26 from http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p493289_index.html

Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The field of higher education administration educates decision makers in both top-level policy making and middle-level policy implementation levels. Given that colleges and universities are crucial engines in today's knowledge society and global economy, the importance of the higher education field cannot be overstated. The primary purpose of this study is to understand the development and practice of higher education administration programs that award master's and doctoral degrees from a comparative perspective.

This study utilizes Burton Clark's triangle model as a conceptual framework for understanding the relationship between government, the academy, and the market (i.e., students) in the formulation and development of higher education administration programs in four countries: the US, Germany, China, and Japan. For methods, this study collected data from individual interviews with higher education faculty from these four countries and their research reports about higher education programs in each country.

Based on findings, a typology revealing three categories of higher education administration programs was generated: (1) market oriented; (2) government initiated; and (3) middle-ground compromised. The US offers a typical consumer-oriented model where higher education administrators play major roles in offering extra-curricular and out-of-classroom learning opportunities for college students. This tendency is strongly influenced by the demands of students and their parents who seek out these types of services in college. The government-initiated model exists in China where higher education as a field of research and professionals is still under development (which, in turn, emphasizes the governmental role in developing higher education administration programs). Japan and Germany, on the other hand, represent middle-ground compromise with a strong influence from academics and universities. With this comparative case study, we see the potential and future directions for other countries that seek to implement or revise higher education administration programs.


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