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GROUP 3. Secondary effects: The private market for government education in Siem Reap, Cambodia

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Abstract:

Chairs: Hank Levin
Gita Steiner-Khamsi

Stage: Dissertation Proposal and Analysis of Preliminary Data

The purpose of this research is to shed light on the mature market of private tutoring (“shadow education”) by government teachers in upper secondary education in Cambodia. In Cambodia, less than a quarter of the students graduate from upper secondary school. Research shows that the primary reason for dropping out is due to fees and lost wages (Bray and Bunly 2005). In rural areas, families with the financial means may send their upper secondary children to local cities or larger villages in order to attend high school. The parents rent rooms for their child and a local high school will be selected based upon the associated costs. The majority of these costs stem from private tutoring fees. For parents who reside in the city with a high school, they also select a high school based upon the associated costs (Harris-Van Keuren 2010). This underground network of information supports the theory that private tutoring in Cambodia is well established, competitive and may follow the laws of a normal good in a competitive market. One might expect the high school deemed as being the best quality in any given city to have the highest private tutoring fees and the teachers of the most popular subjects within that school to command the most per hour. This leads to an interesting evaluation of the prices set per subject and per grade in a given public high school in Cambodia and the impact of informal fees on equity and access.

This dissertation expects people to believe that private tutoring in Cambodia exceeds the definition of “shadow education”. Instead, private tutoring may show similar effects to a normal good in an open market economy influenced by the effects of supply and demand.

A meticulous research project by Bray and Bunly (2005) evaluated the impact of government policy on household expenditures on education in Cambodia. In 2000, the government Priority Action Plan (PAP) effectively reduced household expenditures on education from 1997/98 and 2004 by 33% (for Grade 1) and 41% (for Grade 6) (Bray and Bunly, 2005). The authors found that the “decrease in household costs has chiefly been achieved through PAP which significantly reduced the direct costs on households” (Bray and Bunly, 2005, pg 50). The total educational costs placed staggering burdens on families as they consumed non-food household budgets by almost 57% (for the poorest families for lower secondary school) for the enrollment of a single child. These government policies were appropriately lauded by the families. However, private tutoring fees are still legal in secondary education and are more prevalent and more expensive given the increased pressure of the 12th grade exam. This paper seeks to advance the work of Bray and Bunly by investigating the associated costs per subject per grade for any given school in Cambodia and the influence of these informal fees on equity and attainment by secondary students.

This dissertation will incorporate mixed methods. The quantitative databases utilized will be the Cambodia Labor Force Survey (LFS) data and Cambodian Census 1998 and 2008 data. The following model has been created:

Private Tutoring Compensation Received =α + β1gender + β2age + β3bsalary + β4subj+ β5hours + β6grade+ β7ubanruralsemiuruban + β8numberstudent + β9numberclasses+ β10distancetomoeys +β11province+ β12gdp+e

Depending on the number of levels of analysis, either fixed effects or hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) will be used. Qualitative data will be collected through door to door surveys to interview parents of secondary students regarding the fees they pay for private tutoring and the content their students receive. Also, high school teachers, local MOEYS officials, village leaders and local administrators will provide supporting data.

This dissertation addresses the following research questions:

What are the determinants and level of heterogeneity within the compensation scheme of government upper secondary teachers in Siem Reap?

1. How has the official salaries secondary teachers’ receive changed in real wages since 2000?
2. What is the difference in private tutoring fees by school, subject and grade?
3. How does the existence of private tutoring fees impact secondary students and their families’ selection of an upper secondary school?
4. How does the unofficial compensation of secondary teachers compare to the total compensation received?


Data Sources:
1. Cambodia Labor Market Survey Data and Census Data
2. MOEYS education data
3. Surveys of 9th-12th grade teachers
4. Door to door surveys of parents with children in the 9th - 12th grades.
5. Surveys of MOEYS officials, village leaders, and high school administrators.
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Association:
Name: 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society
URL:
http://www.cies.us


Citation:
URL: http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p494054_index.html
Direct Link:
HTML Code:

MLA Citation:

Harris-Van Keuren, Christine. "GROUP 3. Secondary effects: The private market for government education in Siem Reap, Cambodia" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Fairmont Le Reine Elizabeth, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, May 01, 2011 <Not Available>. 2014-11-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p494054_index.html>

APA Citation:

Harris-Van Keuren, C. M. , 2011-05-01 "GROUP 3. Secondary effects: The private market for government education in Siem Reap, Cambodia" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Fairmont Le Reine Elizabeth, Montreal, Quebec, Canada <Not Available>. 2014-11-26 from http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p494054_index.html

Publication Type: CIES New Scholar Fellow Proposal
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Chairs: Hank Levin
Gita Steiner-Khamsi

Stage: Dissertation Proposal and Analysis of Preliminary Data

The purpose of this research is to shed light on the mature market of private tutoring (“shadow education”) by government teachers in upper secondary education in Cambodia. In Cambodia, less than a quarter of the students graduate from upper secondary school. Research shows that the primary reason for dropping out is due to fees and lost wages (Bray and Bunly 2005). In rural areas, families with the financial means may send their upper secondary children to local cities or larger villages in order to attend high school. The parents rent rooms for their child and a local high school will be selected based upon the associated costs. The majority of these costs stem from private tutoring fees. For parents who reside in the city with a high school, they also select a high school based upon the associated costs (Harris-Van Keuren 2010). This underground network of information supports the theory that private tutoring in Cambodia is well established, competitive and may follow the laws of a normal good in a competitive market. One might expect the high school deemed as being the best quality in any given city to have the highest private tutoring fees and the teachers of the most popular subjects within that school to command the most per hour. This leads to an interesting evaluation of the prices set per subject and per grade in a given public high school in Cambodia and the impact of informal fees on equity and access.

This dissertation expects people to believe that private tutoring in Cambodia exceeds the definition of “shadow education”. Instead, private tutoring may show similar effects to a normal good in an open market economy influenced by the effects of supply and demand.

A meticulous research project by Bray and Bunly (2005) evaluated the impact of government policy on household expenditures on education in Cambodia. In 2000, the government Priority Action Plan (PAP) effectively reduced household expenditures on education from 1997/98 and 2004 by 33% (for Grade 1) and 41% (for Grade 6) (Bray and Bunly, 2005). The authors found that the “decrease in household costs has chiefly been achieved through PAP which significantly reduced the direct costs on households” (Bray and Bunly, 2005, pg 50). The total educational costs placed staggering burdens on families as they consumed non-food household budgets by almost 57% (for the poorest families for lower secondary school) for the enrollment of a single child. These government policies were appropriately lauded by the families. However, private tutoring fees are still legal in secondary education and are more prevalent and more expensive given the increased pressure of the 12th grade exam. This paper seeks to advance the work of Bray and Bunly by investigating the associated costs per subject per grade for any given school in Cambodia and the influence of these informal fees on equity and attainment by secondary students.

This dissertation will incorporate mixed methods. The quantitative databases utilized will be the Cambodia Labor Force Survey (LFS) data and Cambodian Census 1998 and 2008 data. The following model has been created:

Private Tutoring Compensation Received =α + β1gender + β2age + β3bsalary + β4subj+ β5hours + β6grade+ β7ubanruralsemiuruban + β8numberstudent + β9numberclasses+ β10distancetomoeys +β11province+ β12gdp+e

Depending on the number of levels of analysis, either fixed effects or hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) will be used. Qualitative data will be collected through door to door surveys to interview parents of secondary students regarding the fees they pay for private tutoring and the content their students receive. Also, high school teachers, local MOEYS officials, village leaders and local administrators will provide supporting data.

This dissertation addresses the following research questions:

What are the determinants and level of heterogeneity within the compensation scheme of government upper secondary teachers in Siem Reap?

1. How has the official salaries secondary teachers’ receive changed in real wages since 2000?
2. What is the difference in private tutoring fees by school, subject and grade?
3. How does the existence of private tutoring fees impact secondary students and their families’ selection of an upper secondary school?
4. How does the unofficial compensation of secondary teachers compare to the total compensation received?


Data Sources:
1. Cambodia Labor Market Survey Data and Census Data
2. MOEYS education data
3. Surveys of 9th-12th grade teachers
4. Door to door surveys of parents with children in the 9th - 12th grades.
5. Surveys of MOEYS officials, village leaders, and high school administrators.


Similar Titles:
Private higher education in China: Governance, market, and quality assurance

Labor market analysis findings: Siem Reap, Cambodia

Secondary effects: The private market for government education in Cambodia


 
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