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Indigenous higher education’s rise in Bolivia: A policy history

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Abstract:

Using Geertz González and Colangel's (2010, In Press) historical categorization of Indigenous higher education history in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the U.S. as a reference point for comparison, this study aims to examine the specific higher education policies that lead to the establishment of Indigenous higher education institutions in Bolivia. In 2009, Bolivia established 3 Indigenous universities: Universidad Aymara Tupac Katari in La Paz, Universidad Quechua Casmiro Huanca UQCH - Cochabamba, and Universidad Boliviana Guaraní y Pueblos de Tierras Bajas in Chuquisaca. The specific research questions for this study are: 1) did Bolivian Indigenous higher education develop along the similar stages as the countries above?, 2) what are the similarities and differences regarding higher education policy, politics, and intercultural relations in Bolivia and these countries?, 3) what lessons can Bolivia learn regarding the establishment of Indigenous higher education institutions in these countries? We will be examining historical items such as government documents, newspaper articles, nongovernmental organization reports, previous research, and interviews of those involved with Indigenous higher education policy in Bolivia. In Canada and New Zealand, higher education developed because of Indigenous political pressure and the elimination or modification of previous educational exclusionary laws and policies. However, the major difference between these countries is that Indigenous higher education developed relatively late in Canada and New Zealand compared to the U.S. and Australia. The major reasons for their late development are: (1) majority White culture in these countries held stronger racist and paternalistic views regarding education, assimilation, and citizenship for First Nations and Maori respectively, and (2) First Nations and Maori political pressure was weaker than their Indigenous counterparts in the U.S. and Australia. For example, in Canada, the Indian Act of 1867 prevented First Nations peoples from attending college unless they renounced their tribal membership and assimilated; this law was not abolished until 1951. As late as the 1980s, First Nations children had to attend White schools where the curriculum focused on trades training. Thus, the development of Bolivian Indigenous higher education is similar to the late development of Indigenous higher education in Canada and New Zealand because of the specific exclusionary policies. It was not until the 1990s that Indigenous peoples' assertion of their rights to educate themselves according to their own cultural practices took hold. The culmination of their political as well as cultural voice led to the founding of 3 Indigenous universities in Bolivia.
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Association:
Name: 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society
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http://www.cies.us


Citation:
URL: http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p494060_index.html
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MLA Citation:

Geertz Gonzalez, Roger. "Indigenous higher education’s rise in Bolivia: A policy history" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Fairmont Le Reine Elizabeth, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Apr 30, 2011 <Not Available>. 2014-11-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p494060_index.html>

APA Citation:

Geertz Gonzalez, R. , 2011-04-30 "Indigenous higher education’s rise in Bolivia: A policy history" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Fairmont Le Reine Elizabeth, Montreal, Quebec, Canada <Not Available>. 2014-11-26 from http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p494060_index.html

Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Using Geertz González and Colangel's (2010, In Press) historical categorization of Indigenous higher education history in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the U.S. as a reference point for comparison, this study aims to examine the specific higher education policies that lead to the establishment of Indigenous higher education institutions in Bolivia. In 2009, Bolivia established 3 Indigenous universities: Universidad Aymara Tupac Katari in La Paz, Universidad Quechua Casmiro Huanca UQCH - Cochabamba, and Universidad Boliviana Guaraní y Pueblos de Tierras Bajas in Chuquisaca. The specific research questions for this study are: 1) did Bolivian Indigenous higher education develop along the similar stages as the countries above?, 2) what are the similarities and differences regarding higher education policy, politics, and intercultural relations in Bolivia and these countries?, 3) what lessons can Bolivia learn regarding the establishment of Indigenous higher education institutions in these countries? We will be examining historical items such as government documents, newspaper articles, nongovernmental organization reports, previous research, and interviews of those involved with Indigenous higher education policy in Bolivia. In Canada and New Zealand, higher education developed because of Indigenous political pressure and the elimination or modification of previous educational exclusionary laws and policies. However, the major difference between these countries is that Indigenous higher education developed relatively late in Canada and New Zealand compared to the U.S. and Australia. The major reasons for their late development are: (1) majority White culture in these countries held stronger racist and paternalistic views regarding education, assimilation, and citizenship for First Nations and Maori respectively, and (2) First Nations and Maori political pressure was weaker than their Indigenous counterparts in the U.S. and Australia. For example, in Canada, the Indian Act of 1867 prevented First Nations peoples from attending college unless they renounced their tribal membership and assimilated; this law was not abolished until 1951. As late as the 1980s, First Nations children had to attend White schools where the curriculum focused on trades training. Thus, the development of Bolivian Indigenous higher education is similar to the late development of Indigenous higher education in Canada and New Zealand because of the specific exclusionary policies. It was not until the 1990s that Indigenous peoples' assertion of their rights to educate themselves according to their own cultural practices took hold. The culmination of their political as well as cultural voice led to the founding of 3 Indigenous universities in Bolivia.


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