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Demographic Indicators of Ethno-religious Minority Recognition
Unformatted Document Text:  30 The findings of the survey suggest that testimonies of anti-Muslim bias are not imagined or random. Only 10 percent of the respondents will employ or hire someone having a Muslim-sounding name (male border 3%, female domestic helper 7%, male worker 4%). The majority of Filipinos think that Muslims are probably more prone to run amok (55%). 47% believe Muslims are probably terrorists or extremists and 44% believe that Muslims probably secretly hate all non-Muslims. The negative image of Muslims is possibly due to the trend that less than 15% of the respondents have had direct dealings with Muslims. The identity cleavage functions as a separating line between public spheres. When asked about the source of information about Muslims, only 14% could cite their own personal experience with Muslims. Television is the main source of information (78%) followed by radio (44%) and newspaper (29%). Conclusion - Misrecognition in the Philippines The comprehensive analysis of the conflict in Mindanao using the systems analytical framework of misrecognition looks at the socio-political aspects of contestation between groups. The conceptualization of the Mindanao conflict as an identity conflict that involves contestation between the hegemonic center and the subjugated periphery offers a deeper understanding of the connection between identity politics and armed conflict. The nationalist term of reference in state policies is expressed by subordination policies that are accountable to system-structural imbalances. Using the banner of nation- building in formulating state policies, social engineering is legitimized. For instance, the

Authors: Penetrante, Ariel.
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The findings of the survey suggest that testimonies of anti-Muslim bias are not 
imagined or random. Only 10 percent of the respondents will employ or hire someone 
having a Muslim-sounding name (male border 3%, female domestic helper 7%, male 
worker 4%). The majority of Filipinos think that Muslims are probably more prone to run 
amok (55%). 47% believe Muslims are probably terrorists or extremists and 44% believe 
that Muslims probably secretly hate all non-Muslims. 
The negative image of Muslims is possibly due to the trend that less than 15% of 
the respondents have had direct dealings with Muslims. The identity cleavage functions 
as a separating line between public spheres. When asked about the source of information 
about Muslims, only 14% could cite their own personal experience with Muslims. 
Television is the main source of information (78%) followed by radio (44%) and 
newspaper (29%).   
Conclusion - Misrecognition in the Philippines  
The comprehensive analysis of the conflict in Mindanao using the systems 
analytical framework of misrecognition looks at the socio-political aspects of contestation 
between groups. The conceptualization of the Mindanao conflict as an identity conflict 
that involves contestation between the hegemonic center and the subjugated periphery 
offers a deeper understanding of the connection between identity politics and armed 
conflict. The nationalist term of reference in state policies is expressed by subordination 
policies that are accountable to system-structural imbalances. Using the banner of nation-
building in formulating state policies, social engineering is legitimized. For instance, the 

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