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Crossing Over, Heading West and South: Mobility, Citizenship and Employment in the Enlarged Europe
Unformatted Document Text:  1 Crossing Over, Heading West and South: Mobility, Citizenship and Employment in the Enlarged Europe * Ettore Recchi (University of Chieti-Pescara, Italy) Anna Triandafyllidou (ELIAMEP, Athens and EUI, Florence) Paper presented at the International Studies Association (ISA) annual conference, Montreal, March 17 2011: To contact authors: ## email not listed ## ; ## email not listed ## 1. Introduction: from the iron curtain to free movement rights Except Europe, no part of the globe can claim to have a borderless space between 27 sovereign states. This is even more striking in a continent where for centuries so many wars have been fought to defend or move state boundaries. European citizenship – which has its cornerstone in the right of free movement – permits one to reside in any EU member state, enjoying the same entitlements of nationals. This constitutes quite a unique regime, which can still be qualified as international migration, though it operates under the conditions of internal migration. To stress this novelty semantically, in their documents EU institutions tend to designate the term ‘mobility’ to any cross-state transfer of European citizens, whereas ‘migration’ is used to refer to Third Country Nationals only. ‘Mobility’ means first class migration, without the fatigue of controls, visas, permits of stay, and the overall risk that marks traditional migrants’ typical travel and settlement experiences. From its early and timid formulation in 1951 (with the Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community), the right of visa-free crossing and settlement among EEC (then CE then EU) member states widened its scope as well as the pool of potential recipients – from miners and steelworkers in the 1950s to all workers after 1968, to virtually any EU citizen from the 1990s, and even EU long-term residents after 2004 (settlement being still conditioned on either work, study or economic self-sufficiency). The legal impact of the almost universal expansion of free movement and settlement rights in the EU is remarkable, especially because it entails access to social rights on a transnational scale. Hence, it contributes indirectly to the creation of a European welfare system, eroding an important area of member state sovereignty, and pushing forward political integration (Favell and Recchi, 2009). To place this into context, free movement across US states was fully acknowledged as a constitutional right only in the 1940s (Giubboni, 2007). * A slightly different version of this paper is published in G. Menz and A. Caviedes (eds) Labour Migration in Europe, Palgrave, London, 2010.

Authors: Triandafyllidou, Anna. and Recchi, Ettore.
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Crossing Over, Heading West and South:  
Mobility, Citizenship and Employment in the Enlarged Europe
Ettore Recchi  
(University of Chieti-Pescara, Italy)  
Anna Triandafyllidou  
(ELIAMEP, Athens and EUI, Florence) 
Paper presented at the International Studies Association (ISA) annual conference, Montreal, 
March 17 2011: To contact authors: 
## email not listed ##
## email not listed ##
1.  Introduction: from the iron curtain to free movement rights  
Except Europe, no part of the globe can claim to have a borderless space between 27 
sovereign states. This is even more striking in a continent where for centuries so many 
wars  have  been  fought  to  defend  or  move  state  boundaries.  European  citizenship  – 
which has its cornerstone in the right of free movement – permits one to reside in any 
EU member state, enjoying the same entitlements of nationals. This constitutes quite a 
unique  regime,  which  can  still  be  qualified  as  international  migration,  though  it 
operates  under  the  conditions  of  internal  migration.  To  stress  this  novelty 
semantically, in their documents EU institutions tend to designate the term ‘mobility’ 
to any cross-state transfer of European citizens, whereas ‘migration’ is used to refer to 
Third Country Nationals only. ‘Mobility’ means first class migration, without the fatigue 
of controls, visas, permits of stay, and the overall risk that marks traditional migrants’ 
typical travel and settlement experiences. 
From  its  early  and timid  formulation  in  1951  (with  the  Treaty  establishing  the 
European  Coal  and  Steel  Community),  the  right  of  visa-free  crossing  and  settlement 
among EEC (then CE then EU) member states widened its scope as well as the pool of 
potential  recipients  – from  miners  and  steelworkers  in  the  1950s to  all workers  after 
1968, to virtually any EU citizen from the 1990s, and even EU long-term residents after 
2004  (settlement  being  still  conditioned  on  either  work,  study  or  economic  self-
sufficiency). The legal impact of the almost universal expansion of free movement and 
settlement rights in the EU is remarkable, especially because it entails access to social 
rights  on  a  transnational  scale.  Hence,  it  contributes  indirectly  to  the  creation  of  a 
European  welfare  system,  eroding  an  important  area  of  member  state  sovereignty, 
and pushing  forward  political  integration  (Favell and  Recchi,  2009).  To place  this  into 
context,  free  movement  across  US  states  was  fully  acknowledged  as  a  constitutional 
right only in the 1940s (Giubboni, 2007).  
A slightly different version of this paper is published in G. Menz and A. Caviedes (eds) Labour Migration 
in Europe, Palgrave, London, 2010.

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