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Information Surplus, Information Overload, and Multiplatform News Consumption: Updating Considerations of Influential Factors
Unformatted Document Text:  Information Overload and the Factor of Time 17   level of information overload. Being female (β = .089, p <.05), income (β = -.100, p <.01) and news interest (β = -.159, p <.001) remain significant predictors of information overload. To examine the effect of individual news platforms and outlets on information overload, the 15 individual news platforms/outlets items were entered into the last model. Results showed that, among the 15 platforms/outlets, five are significant predictors of information overload. News access through e-readers (β = .150, p <.05) and Facebook (β = .118, p <.05) has a positive impact on information overload, while TV (β = -.118, p <.01), the iPhone (β = -.117, p <.05), and the iPad (β = -.111, p <.05) have a negative impact. Overall, this full model accounts for 13.5% of the variance in information overload (R 2 = .135, p <.001). Cohen’s (1988) criteria for effect size states that an R 2 between .09 and .25 is moderately strong. [INSERT TABLE 3 HERE] Perception of time for single-item consumption RQ3 sought to explore whether people perceive certain news platforms as more time- consuming than others. As Figure 1 shows, respondents 8 (n = 408) indicated that the most time is needed to read an article in the print newspaper (6 minutes and 16 seconds, SD = 337), followed by Web sites (4 minutes and 37 seconds, SD = 258), blogs (3 minutes and 52 seconds, SD = 266), Facebook (2 minutes and 48 seconds, SD =219), and Twitter (2 minutes and 21 seconds SD = 186). One-way repeated measures ANOVA compared the means. Mauchly’s test indicated that the assumption of sphericity had been violated (chi-square = 585.8, p < .001); therefore degrees of freedom were corrected using Greenhouse-Geisser estimates                                                                                                                 8 those who answered all five questions on the time requirement of five news platforms.

Authors: Holton, Avery. and Chyi, H. Iris.
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Information Overload and the Factor of Time 
level of information overload. Being female (β = .089, <.05), income (β = -.100, <.01) 
and news interest (β = -.159, <.001) remain significant predictors of information 
 To examine the effect of individual news platforms and outlets on information 
overload, the 15 individual news platforms/outlets items were entered into the last model. 
Results showed that, among the 15 platforms/outlets, five are significant predictors of 
information overload. News access through e-readers (β = .150, <.05) and Facebook (β 
= .118, <.05) has a positive impact on information overload, while TV (β = -.118, 
<.01), the iPhone (β = -.117, <.05), and the iPad (β = -.111, <.05) have a negative 
impact. Overall, this full model accounts for 13.5% of the variance in information 
overload (R
 = .135, p <.001). Cohen’s (1988) criteria for effect size states that an R
between .09 and .25 is moderately strong. 
Perception of time for single-item consumption 
RQ3 sought to explore whether people perceive certain news platforms as more time-
consuming than others. As Figure 1 shows, respondents
 (n = 408) indicated that the most 
time is needed to read an article in the print newspaper (6 minutes and 16 seconds, SD = 
337), followed by Web sites (4 minutes and 37 seconds, SD = 258), blogs (3 minutes and 
52 seconds, SD = 266), Facebook (2 minutes and 48 seconds, SD =219), and Twitter (2 
minutes and 21 seconds SD = 186).   
One-way repeated measures ANOVA compared the means. Mauchly’s test 
indicated that the assumption of sphericity had been violated (chi-square = 585.8, p 
< .001); therefore degrees of freedom were corrected using Greenhouse-Geisser estimates 
 those who answered all five questions on the time requirement of five news platforms. 

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