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The Emergence of Social Media & the Political Crisis in Pakistan
Unformatted Document Text:  Social media & political crisis in Pakistan 15 against President Musharraf’s martial law and his ban on media and judiciary, police brutalities against protesters, and anti-government slogans. Visual analysis of the selected videos was used to address the first research question. A textual analysis of viewers’ comments was used to address the second research question. The researcher also looked at the total number of hits each selected video received on YouTube. Visual and Textual Analysis of the First Video The video 1 was uploaded on November 9, 2007 (on the eighth day of martial law), and by the time of analysis for this study (October 25, 2010), it had been viewed by 16,393 people. Since YouTube does not provide a breakdown of viewers by year, it is not possible to tell how many people viewed this video immediately after it was uploaded. The video is comprised of the images of violence against civilians and lawyers, protest rallies against the military regime, brutalities of police on unarmed people, and arrests. These incidents were taking place in different parts of the country simultaneously. The publisher “X” (pseudonym) compiled these images of violence, protests, and arrests in the form of a slideshow video with background music. The overall tone of the video was anti-military establishment. Protestors in the video were shown as heroes who were struggling against the cruelties of the military regime. The video entailed the images of brutality on protestors by the law enforcement agencies, the images of female protestors, police brutalities on both men and women protesters, and the arrests of bleeding protestors. Furthermore, the protestors were shown holding placards demanding the restoration of democracy, media freedom, and reinstatement of the Supreme Court’s chief 1

Authors: Arif, Rauf.
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Social media & political crisis in Pakistan 15
against President Musharraf’s martial law and his ban on media and judiciary, police brutalities 
against protesters, and anti-government slogans. Visual analysis of the selected videos was used 
to address the first research question. A textual analysis of viewers’ comments was used to 
address the second research question. The researcher also looked at the total number of hits each 
selected video received on YouTube. 
Visual and Textual Analysis of the First Video
The video
 was uploaded on November 9, 2007 (on the eighth day of martial law), and by 
the time of analysis for this study (October 25, 2010), it had been viewed by 16,393 people. 
Since YouTube does not provide a breakdown of viewers by year, it is not possible to tell how 
many people viewed this video immediately after it was uploaded. The video is comprised of the 
images  of violence  against civilians and lawyers,  protest rallies  against the military regime, 
brutalities   of   police   on   unarmed   people,   and   arrests.   These   incidents   were   taking   place   in 
different parts of the country simultaneously. The publisher “X” (pseudonym) compiled these 
images of violence,  protests, and arrests in the form of a slideshow video with background 
The overall tone of the video was anti-military establishment. Protestors in the video 
were shown as heroes who were struggling against the cruelties of the military regime. The video 
entailed the images of brutality on protestors by the law enforcement agencies, the images of 
female   protestors,   police   brutalities   on   both   men   and   women   protesters,   and   the   arrests   of 
bleeding protestors. Furthermore, the protestors were shown holding placards demanding the 
restoration   of   democracy,   media   freedom,   and   reinstatement   of   the   Supreme   Court’s   chief 

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