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How a Public Evaluate an Organization’s Official Statement to pursue Organizational Transparency: An Impact of Organizational Claims to Truth on the Public’s Perception of Credibility toward the Content
Unformatted Document Text:  Running head: How a Public Evaluate an Organization’s Official Statement to pursue Organizational Transparency 9 sources are journalists, public relations practitioners, private health company officials, scientists, government agency officials, and doctors). The findings showed that transparency is one of the most important factors for participants to assess source credibility with perceived expertise and perceived knowledge (Avery, 2010). In addition, Craft and Heim (2009) explained a relationship between accountability, transparency and credibility. First, Craft and Heim (2009) distinguished accountability from transparency in such a way that while accountability refers to explanations of why transparency efforts were reasonable and acceptable, accountability is increased by the public’s evaluation toward transparency effort of journalists such as revealing the motives and decisions (Craft & Heim, 2009). They also ascertained that transparency is regarded as worth promoting to earn public trust toward its institution, because ―greater accountability may be achieved, greater credibility may be enhanced, and truth may be told‖ (Craft & Heim, 2009, p.222). In other words, a journalist’s transparency effort is a way to increase trust among investors, consumers, and regulators through enhanced accountability and credibility of information. Equally, Sweetser (2010) considered lack of information disclosure, which is operationalized as hiding a truth, as an organization’s unethical behavior and revealed that if the organization does not disclose information clearly, it could affect credibility toward the message which the harms relationship between public and organization. Therefore, the current research examines the effects of transparency efforts operationalized by a disclosure claim (e.g. providing more detailed information) and by a truth claim (e.g. claiming information offered by an organization as true facts) on the public’s credibility perceptions. By assuming that an organization seeks to attain more transparent communication with the public by displaying truth claims as well as disclosure claims (Kim et al.,

Authors: Kim, Bo Kyung. and Hong, Seoyeon.
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Running head: How a Public Evaluate an Organization’s Official Statement to pursue 
Organizational Transparency 
sources are journalists, public relations practitioners, private health company officials, scientists, 
government agency officials, and doctors). The findings showed that transparency is one of the 
most important factors for participants to assess source credibility with perceived expertise and 
perceived knowledge (Avery, 2010). In addition, Craft and Heim (2009) explained a relationship 
between accountability, transparency and credibility. First, Craft and Heim (2009) distinguished 
accountability from transparency in such a way that while accountability refers to explanations 
of why transparency efforts were reasonable and acceptable, accountability is increased by the 
public’s evaluation toward transparency effort of journalists such as revealing the motives and 
decisions (Craft & Heim, 2009). They also ascertained that transparency is regarded as worth 
promoting to earn public trust toward its institution, because ―greater accountability may be 
achieved, greater credibility may be enhanced, and truth may be told‖ (Craft & Heim, 2009, 
 In other words, a journalist’s transparency effort is a way to increase trust among 
investors, consumers, and regulators through enhanced accountability and credibility of 
information. Equally, Sweetser (2010) considered lack of information disclosure, which is 
operationalized as hiding a truth, as an organization’s unethical behavior and revealed that if the 
organization does not disclose information clearly, it could affect credibility toward the message 
which the harms relationship between public and organization.  
Therefore, the current research examines the effects of transparency efforts 
operationalized by a disclosure claim (e.g. providing more detailed information) and by a truth 
claim (e.g. claiming information offered by an organization as true facts) on the public’s 
credibility perceptions. By assuming that an organization seeks to attain more transparent 
communication with the public by displaying truth claims as well as disclosure claims (Kim et al., 

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