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Evolutionary Psychology, Social Emotions and Social Networking Sites -- An Integrative Model
Unformatted Document Text:  Method Glenn (1977) suggests that cohort studies offer a way at measuring an experience by a group within a specific period of time. A cohort survey would serve to identify the trends among different age groups as they engage in SNS, a way to quantitatively gauge how distinctive sections of the population respond to online communities. Since there is no empirical research regarding the relationship between SNS users, alienation and social emotions it was proposed to look at a convenient population of college students for the cohort study. Thus, the population for this research comprised of college students with an age 18 – 59 at a Midwestern urban university in the United States of America. Participants A total of 263 students participated in the survey questionnaire. The gender split was 150 (57%) females and 113 (43%) males. From this total amount, 77.9% of the participants were in the age range of 18 to 24; 13.6% were in the age group of 25-30; 4.6% were between 31 and 40; and 4% were age 41 or more. One respondent who completed the survey did not provide an answer. The median age of the sample was 23. Procedures After providing informed consent, the respondents completed a survey questionnaire. There were different sections in the survey which looked at SNS users’ total amount of online contacts and alienation measured along four dimensions of social emotions: shame, embarrassment, envy and guilt. Independent Variables Negative emotional valences were used as the basis for measuring alienation. Many scholars have discussed this premise of positive and negative valence or polarities (Britton et al., 14

Authors: Suran, Sandra., Pettey, Gary., Bracken, Cheryl. and Whitbred, Robert.
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Glenn (1977) suggests that cohort studies offer a way at measuring an experience by a 
group within a specific period of time.  A cohort survey would serve to identify the trends among 
different age groups as they engage in SNS, a way to quantitatively gauge how distinctive 
sections of the population respond to online communities.  Since there is no empirical research 
regarding the relationship between SNS users, alienation and social emotions it was proposed to 
look at a convenient population of college students for the cohort study. Thus, the population for 
this research comprised of college students with an age 18 – 59 at a Midwestern urban university 
in the United States of America.
A total of 263 students participated in the survey questionnaire. The gender split was 150 
(57%) females and 113 (43%) males. From this total amount, 77.9% of the participants were in 
the age range of 18 to 24; 13.6% were in the age group of 25-30; 4.6% were between 31 and 40; 
and 4% were age 41 or more. One respondent who completed the survey did not provide an 
answer. The median age of the sample was 23.
After providing informed consent, the respondents completed a survey questionnaire. 
There were different sections in the survey which looked at SNS users’ total amount of online 
contacts and alienation measured along four dimensions of social emotions: shame, 
embarrassment, envy and guilt.
Independent Variables
Negative emotional valences were used as the basis for measuring alienation.  Many 
scholars have discussed this premise of positive and negative valence or polarities (Britton et al., 

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