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Evolutionary Psychology, Social Emotions and Social Networking Sites -- An Integrative Model
Unformatted Document Text:  Guilt The items measuring guilt were, “I worry about being alone and want to find people like me online.” (guilt1) and “If I could have more relationships with others, I would like myself more” (guilt2). Envy The items measuring envy were, “I often feel envious of those who have a lot of friends” (envy1) and “I feel jealous of those who have a lot of people they know” (envy2). Shame The items measuring shame were“ I am ashamed that I have very few friends” (shame1), and “Other people seem to be good at meeting people, I feel left out” (shame2). Embarrassment The items measuring embarrassment were “It is embarrassing to try to talk to people because I am afraid I might say or do something wrong” (emb1), and “It feels awkward often times because I have no one to talk to” (emb2). Dependent Variable Number of contacts/friends The dependent variable was an interval level item asking participants to quantify the amount of contacts they maintain online on SNS. Results In order to determine whether the four dimensions of alienation should be treated separately, a principal component analysis was run in SPSS looking for the four dimensions of alienation: shame, guilt, embarrassment and envy. A subsequent multiple regression equation was 16

Authors: Suran, Sandra., Pettey, Gary., Bracken, Cheryl. and Whitbred, Robert.
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The items measuring guilt were, “I worry about being alone and want to find people like 
me online.” (guilt1) and “If  I could have more relationships with others, I would like myself 
more” (guilt2).
The items measuring envy were, “I often feel envious of those who have a lot of friends” 
(envy1) and  “I feel jealous of those who have a lot of people they know” (envy2).
The items measuring shame were“ I am ashamed that I have very few friends” (shame1), 
and “Other people seem to be good at meeting people, I feel left out” (shame2).
The items measuring embarrassment were “It is embarrassing to try to talk to people 
because I am afraid I might say or do something wrong” (emb1), and “It feels awkward often 
times because I have no one to talk to” (emb2).
Dependent Variable
Number of contacts/friends
The dependent variable was an interval level item asking participants to quantify the 
amount of contacts they maintain online on SNS.
In order to determine whether the four dimensions of alienation should be treated 
separately, a principal component analysis was run in SPSS looking for the four dimensions of 
alienation: shame, guilt, embarrassment and envy. A subsequent multiple regression equation was 

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