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Evolutionary Psychology, Social Emotions and Social Networking Sites -- An Integrative Model
Unformatted Document Text:  Universal emotions, like social emotions, have been observed in previous literature. When the Industrial Revolution was beginning to take root in society, this human phenomena was described as anomie by Durkheim (Schellenburg, 1978). Karl Marx (McLellan, 1977; Rio, 1999) argued human suffering, this overwhelming sense of loss, was inherently due to the economic and political exploits caused by capitalism — called alienation. Tonnies (2002), Durkheim and Marx found how damaging it was to an individual’s character if there was a disconnect between an individual and their group, where the severing of ties allows individuals to possess no social identity. Observations like these regarding the social aspects of human behavior relative to the group they belong are not unique to research. Durkheim and Marx alluded to patterns of behavior we see currently taking place in society. People feel lonely and disengaged with others. Wherever you go people express similar ideas: they are unfulfilled and isolated with their lives and in their communities. This research offers these same concepts and ideas with a new perspective—a biological focus. Human behavior is a function of the brain and body as well as emotive devices creating an interwoven organism interacting with its environment. Evolutionary Psychology Model Believing that the brain and the body function together is a premise that runs counter to the traditional dualism of the social sciences paradigm. This study follows this perspective: the Evolutionary Psychology (EP) integrative model whereby concepts have fluidity, hard and soft sciences do not compete, instead, they are integrated together for a more comprehensive understanding of human behavior. Cosmides and Tooby (1992) stated this same view. “Human minds, human behavior, human artifacts and human culture are all biological phenomena— 6

Authors: Suran, Sandra., Pettey, Gary., Bracken, Cheryl. and Whitbred, Robert.
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Universal emotions, like social emotions, have been observed in previous literature. 
When the Industrial Revolution was beginning to take root in society, this human phenomena 
was described as anomie by Durkheim (Schellenburg, 1978).  Karl Marx (McLellan, 1977; Rio, 
1999) argued human suffering, this overwhelming sense of loss, was inherently due to the 
economic and political exploits caused by capitalism —  called alienation. Tonnies (2002), 
Durkheim and Marx found how damaging it was to an individual’s character if there was a 
disconnect between an individual and their group, where the severing of ties allows individuals 
to possess no social identity.
Observations like these regarding the social aspects of human behavior relative to the 
group they belong are not unique to research.  Durkheim and Marx alluded to patterns of 
behavior we see currently taking place in society. People feel lonely and disengaged with others. 
Wherever you go people express similar ideas: they are unfulfilled and isolated with their lives 
and in their communities.  This research offers these same concepts and ideas with a new 
perspective—a biological focus.  Human behavior is a function of the brain and body as well as 
emotive devices creating an interwoven organism interacting with its environment.
Evolutionary Psychology Model
Believing that the brain and the body function together is a premise that runs counter to 
the traditional dualism of the social sciences paradigm.  This study follows this perspective:  the 
Evolutionary Psychology (EP) integrative model whereby concepts have fluidity, hard and soft 
sciences do not compete, instead, they are integrated together for a more comprehensive 
understanding of human behavior. Cosmides and Tooby (1992) stated this same view.  “Human 
minds, human behavior, human artifacts and human culture are all biological phenomena—
6


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