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Use of print & online news media for local news: A uses & dependency perspective
Unformatted Document Text:  Print & Online News Media 2000). Human motivation can be viewed as a continuum with intrinsic motivation being the highest on one end and with amotivation being the lowest on the other. Ryan and Deci (2000) acknowledged that intrinsic motivation may not be the only type of motivation in reality, because people are constantly struggling with various pressures and regulations from the social environment in which they live. Consequently, they perform activities that are deemed necessary not by themselves but by those around them and by the norms and beliefs that are already rooted in the environment. According to the SDT, humans are inherently motivated and capable of internalizing the regulation of important activities, even those that are initially perceived as uninteresting. Internalization refers to the process of transforming external regulations into internal regulations. Successful internalization, also called identification through regulation (Ryan & Deci, 2000), involves the integration of formerly external regulations into one’s sense of self, typically in the form of important personal values. Introjected regulation is the result of partial internalization, referring to the behavior in which the person takes in part of a regulation and does not fully accept the regulation as his or her own. External regulation means that one does not attach any personal significance or value to the task he or she performs but simply does whatever the regulation demands. Of the four types of extrinsic motivation, integrated regulation is the most autonomous or self-determined as an external regulation is fully accepted and integrated into the self (Ryan & Deci, 2000). In essence, the central difference among the four classifications is the degree to which identification is experienced and hence the adoption of beliefs as committed personal values, or self-determined. The 1990s has seen the rise of the theory and different forms of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation have been examined in education (e.g., Vallerand, Fortier, & Guay, 6

Authors: Fleming, Kenneth.
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Print & Online News Media
2000). Human motivation can be viewed as a continuum with intrinsic motivation being the 
highest on one end and with amotivation being the lowest on the other. Ryan and Deci (2000) 
acknowledged that intrinsic motivation may not be the only type of motivation in reality, 
because people are constantly struggling with various pressures and regulations from the 
social environment in which they live. Consequently, they perform activities that are deemed 
necessary not by themselves but by those around them and by the norms and beliefs that are 
already rooted in the environment. 
According to the SDT, humans are inherently motivated and capable of internalizing 
the regulation of important activities, even those that are initially perceived as uninteresting. 
Internalization refers to the process of transforming external regulations into internal 
regulations. Successful internalization, also called identification through regulation (Ryan & 
Deci, 2000), involves the integration of formerly external regulations into one’s sense of self, 
typically in the form of important personal values. Introjected regulation is the result of partial 
internalization, referring to the behavior in which the person takes in part of a regulation and 
does not fully accept the regulation as his or her own. External regulation means that one does 
not attach any personal significance or value to the task he or she performs but simply does 
whatever the regulation demands. Of the four types of extrinsic motivation, integrated 
regulation is the most autonomous or self-determined as an external regulation is fully 
accepted and integrated into the self (Ryan & Deci, 2000). In essence, the central difference 
among the four classifications is the degree to which identification is experienced and hence 
the adoption of beliefs as committed personal values, or self-determined.  
The 1990s has seen the rise of the theory and different forms of intrinsic and 
extrinsic motivation have been examined in education (e.g., Vallerand, Fortier, & Guay, 
6


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