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Use of print & online news media for local news: A uses & dependency perspective
Unformatted Document Text:  Print & Online News Media likely the media will affect people’s cognitions, feelings, and behavior as a result of the information seeking (Rubin & Windahl, 1986). The uses and gratifications approach examines the social and psychological origins of human needs that generate expectations of the mass media or other sources (e.g., Katz, Blumler, & Gurevitch, 1974). It is believed that the expectations will guide individuals to determine different patterns of media exposure and hence result in need gratifications and other consequences. From this expectancy-value perspective, majority of the uses and gratifications research has focused on the interrelations among gratifications sought (GS) and gratifications obtained (GO), media exposure, medium choice, and content choice. The difference between the two perspectives is that the media dependency perspective views people’s media consumption constrained and determined by social forces, whereas the uses and gratifications perspective focuses on the psychological and socio-demographic origins of individual needs and motives, their differences in media use, and the role of interpersonal communication or networking in seeking gratifications (e.g., Ball-Rokeach, 1998; Rubin & Windahl, 1986). Because people are conscious goal seekers, different societal structures can influence different gratification-seeking behaviors (Ball-Rokeach, 1998). On the other hand, an audience member is selective, actively processes and interprets information, and tries to make sense out of content (Rayburn, 1996; Rubin & Windahl, 1986). To relate dependency’s macro-perspective of societal systems to uses and gratifications’ micro-perspective of individual media behavior, Rubin and Windahl (1986) proposed a uses and dependency model to examine the interrelations among the social and psychological needs or motives of audience 8

Authors: Fleming, Kenneth.
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Print & Online News Media
likely the media will affect people’s cognitions, feelings, and behavior as a result of the 
information seeking (Rubin & Windahl, 1986). 
The uses and gratifications approach examines the social and psychological 
origins of human needs that generate expectations of the mass media or other sources 
(e.g., Katz, Blumler, & Gurevitch, 1974). It is believed that the expectations will guide 
individuals to determine different patterns of media exposure and hence result in need 
gratifications and other consequences. From this expectancy-value perspective, majority 
of the uses and gratifications research has focused on the interrelations among 
gratifications sought (GS) and gratifications obtained (GO), media exposure, medium 
choice, and content choice.  
The difference between the two perspectives is that the media dependency 
perspective views people’s media consumption constrained and determined by social 
forces, whereas the uses and gratifications perspective focuses on the psychological and 
socio-demographic origins of individual needs and motives, their differences in media 
use, and the role of interpersonal communication or networking in seeking gratifications 
(e.g., Ball-Rokeach, 1998; Rubin & Windahl, 1986). Because people are conscious goal 
seekers, different societal structures can influence different gratification-seeking 
behaviors (Ball-Rokeach, 1998). On the other hand, an audience member is selective, 
actively processes and interprets information, and tries to make sense out of content 
(Rayburn, 1996; Rubin & Windahl, 1986). To relate dependency’s macro-perspective of 
societal systems to uses and gratifications’ micro-perspective of individual media 
behavior, Rubin and Windahl (1986) proposed a uses and dependency model to examine 
the interrelations among the social and psychological needs or motives of audience 

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