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The Concept Of Online Image Of A Brand And Its Application To Nation Brands
Unformatted Document Text:  Giorgi Topouria: The Concept Of Online Image Of A Brand And Its Application To Nation Brands 10 Above-cited scholars and practitioners seem to be in agreement that the basic branding concepts (identity, image, reputation, equity, etc.) and approaches can be applied to nations without considerable modification, by integrating them with the notion and components of national identity. Here, it needs to be pointed out, that some researchers use the term national character, rather than national identity. As in general branding discipline, most common approach to nation-brands and branding has been a continuation of the similar line of work in marketing by the adoption of personality-based approach, both in terms of brand personality (Aaker, 1997), as well as different human personality traits. Dinnie (2008) also discusses the phenomenon of ―personification‖ of nation- brands, which may occur when the nation brand becomes bound to its political leader (Castro – Cuba, Ceaucescu – Romania, Putin – Russia, Mandela – South Africa, Chaves – Venesuela, etc.). Thus, existing empirical research in national character/identity to a considerable degree is related to and draws upon the field of personality psychology. As marketing research merged with personality psychology to form the direction of studies in brand personality (Outhavongs, 2007), the tendency to equate/relate country attributes to human personality traits has grown stronger. However useful and insightful this approach may be, it seems to be an oversimplification, since because of its such key components as: land, historic territory, or homeland; culture, religion, common myths and historical memories; government, economics, international alliances, legislation, common legal rights and duties for all members; and a common economy with territorial mobility for all members, etc., a nation brand is certainly more complex than human personality (Anholt, 2002; Dinnie, 2008; Fan, 2008, 2009; Lee, 2009; Outhavongs, 2007).

Authors: Topouria, Giorgi.
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Giorgi Topouria: The Concept Of Online Image Of A Brand And Its Application To Nation Brands  
Above-cited scholars and practitioners seem to be in agreement that the basic branding concepts 
(identity, image, reputation, equity, etc.) and approaches can be applied to nations without 
considerable modification, by integrating them with the notion and components of national 
identity. Here, it needs to be pointed out, that some researchers use the term national character, 
rather than national identity.  
As in general branding discipline, most common approach to nation-brands and branding has 
been a continuation of the similar line of work in marketing by the adoption of personality-based 
approach, both in terms of brand personality (Aaker, 1997), as well as different human 
personality traits. Dinnie (2008) also discusses the phenomenon of ―personification‖ of nation-
brands, which may occur when the nation brand becomes bound to its political leader (Castro – 
Cuba, Ceaucescu – Romania, Putin – Russia, Mandela – South Africa, Chaves – Venesuela, 
Thus, existing empirical research in national character/identity to a considerable degree is related 
to and draws upon the field of personality psychology. As marketing research merged with 
personality psychology to form the direction of studies in brand personality (Outhavongs, 2007), 
the tendency to equate/relate country attributes to human personality traits has grown stronger. 
However useful and insightful this approach may be, it seems to be an oversimplification, since 
because of its such key components as: land, historic territory, or homeland; culture, religion, 
common myths and historical memories; government, economics, international alliances, 
legislation, common legal rights and duties for all members; and a common economy with 
territorial mobility for all members, etc., a nation brand is certainly more complex than human 
personality (Anholt, 2002; Dinnie, 2008; Fan, 2008, 2009; Lee, 2009; Outhavongs, 2007).  

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