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The Concept Of Online Image Of A Brand And Its Application To Nation Brands
Unformatted Document Text:  Giorgi Topouria: The Concept Of Online Image Of A Brand And Its Application To Nation Brands 12 Perhaps, it would also be beneficial to include in the list of nation-brand identity components Aaker‘s dimensions of brand personality (1997), as well as elements of Eyzenck‘s and various other measures of human personality traits, after adapting these indexes to nation brands. However, it is important to understand that, in addition to the suggested ―core‖ dimensions/facets of national identity, there are many more and their full selection should be done in case of each particular nation differently, based on characteristics and their hierarchy which are unique to the given nation (Dinnie, 2008). It is important to pay close attention to Fan‘s suggestion (2008, p. 4) that: ―contrary to commonly held assumptions, the concept of national identity based on widely agreed associations about the nation may never exist – this is because the nation is not a unitary entity in which all members think, feel, and act in the same way. Instead, each individual engages in many different ways in making sense of the nation and national identities (Thompson, 2001)‖. As to the nation brand image, the latest approach to conceptualizing it has been in terms of perceptions of various internal and external nation-brand stakeholders and their interactions and communications within the context of increased segmentation and categorization of these stakeholders (Dinnie, 2008; Fan, 2008). Dinnie (2008) refers to this as ―communicators/vectors of nation-brand identity‖, which he understands as: branded exports, diasporas, sporting achievements, cultural artifacts, marketing communications, personalities, tourism experience, foreign policy, etc. Again, for Dinnie, this list is far from exhaustive and is likely to vary by each particular country/nation. Fan (2008) expresses the same concept using the term positioning/nation-branding. Anholt (2002) on the other hand, classifies the aspects that have an impact on the formation of the image of a country into the following six distinct ―vectors of identity‖:

Authors: Topouria, Giorgi.
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Giorgi Topouria: The Concept Of Online Image Of A Brand And Its Application To Nation Brands  
Perhaps, it would also be beneficial to include in the list of nation-brand identity components 
Aaker‘s dimensions of brand personality (1997), as well as elements of Eyzenck‘s and various 
other measures of human personality traits, after adapting these indexes to nation brands. 
However, it is important to understand that, in addition to the suggested ―core‖ dimensions/facets 
of national identity, there are many more and their full selection should be done in case of each 
particular nation differently, based on characteristics and their hierarchy which are unique to the 
given nation (Dinnie, 2008). 
It is important to pay close attention to Fan‘s suggestion (2008, p. 4) that: ―contrary to commonly 
held assumptions, the concept of national identity based on widely agreed associations about the 
nation may never exist – this is because the nation is not a unitary entity in which all members 
think, feel, and act in the same way. Instead, each individual engages in many different ways in 
making sense of the nation and national identities (Thompson, 2001)‖.   
As to the nation brand image, the latest approach to conceptualizing it has been in terms of 
perceptions of various internal and external nation-brand stakeholders and their interactions and 
communications within the context of increased segmentation and categorization of these 
stakeholders (Dinnie, 2008; Fan, 2008). Dinnie (2008) refers to this as ―communicators/vectors 
of nation-brand identity‖, which he understands as: branded exports, diasporas, sporting 
achievements, cultural artifacts, marketing communications, personalities, tourism experience, 
foreign policy, etc. Again, for Dinnie, this list is far from exhaustive and is likely to vary by each 
particular country/nation. Fan (2008) expresses the same concept using the term 
Anholt (2002) on the other hand, classifies the aspects that have an impact on the formation of 
the image of a country into the following six distinct ―vectors of identity‖: 

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