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The Concept Of Online Image Of A Brand And Its Application To Nation Brands
Unformatted Document Text:  Giorgi Topouria: The Concept Of Online Image Of A Brand And Its Application To Nation Brands 13  ―Governance (the way a country is run or perceived to be run)  Culture (cultural heritage and popular culture)  People (people‘s perception of the people)  Brands and products that come from the country (Germany and Japan were able to build strong brands after a ‗black period in history‘ through these more neutral channels that had a spill over effect to other aspects like culture and people)  Tourism (some countries like Jamaica only have a ‗tourist image‘)  Business to business (sectors which are communicating directly with a specialized audience, for example the higher education sector)‖ (Anholt, 2008) Anholt places these ―vectors‖ in the form of a hexagon (see Appendix 2). It is through these communicators/vectors or positioning/nation branding that the image of a nation-brand is formed by each of the stakeholders. Dinnie refers to these stakeholders as nation- brand image audiences, which consist of domestic consumers/firms, external consumers/firms, investors, government, media, etc. Fan refers to them as simply ―others‖. Dinnie and Fan both offer almost identical conceptual models: - Nation Brand Identity (key components)  Communicators/Vectors of Nation Brand Identity  Nation Brand Image (audiences‘) (Dinnie, 2008, Appendix 1) - (Self) Identity  Positioning /Nation branding  Image (held by other) (Fan, 2008) Both Dinnie and Fan present the formation of nation image as a complex process in which images of the nation held by different audiences/stakeholders (Fan calls these images – ―perspectives‖) interact with each other, while self perception, ―i.e. how a nation sees or believes itself‖, plays a dominant role. At the same time, Fan looks at a nation as a complex organization. He then applies Albert and Whetten‘s (1985) organization identity theory and the concept of organization image in the context of nation image and develops a conceptual framework for the analysis of nation image. Drawing upon Brown et al.‘s original framework (2006) of four central ―viewpoints‖ of organization image, Fan adds two new viewpoints and presents a total of six viewpoints, or as he calls them - ―key perspectives‖ on nation image in a unified model, which he summarizes in a table of 6 key perspectives that according to him are factors in the formation of nation image

Authors: Topouria, Giorgi.
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Giorgi Topouria: The Concept Of Online Image Of A Brand And Its Application To Nation Brands  
―Governance (the way a country is run or perceived to be run) 
Culture (cultural heritage and popular culture) 
People (people‘s perception of the people) 
Brands and products that come from the country (Germany and Japan were able to build strong 
brands after a ‗black period in history‘ through these more neutral channels that had a spill over 
effect to other aspects like culture and people) 
Tourism (some countries like Jamaica only have a ‗tourist image‘) 
Business to business (sectors which are communicating directly with a specialized audience, for 
example the higher education sector)‖ 
(Anholt, 2008)
Anholt places these ―vectors‖ in the form of a hexagon (see Appendix 2). 
It is through these communicators/vectors or positioning/nation branding that the image of a 
nation-brand is formed by each of the stakeholders. Dinnie refers to these stakeholders as nation-
brand image audiences, which consist of domestic consumers/firms, external consumers/firms, 
investors, government, media, etc. Fan refers to them as simply ―others‖. 
Dinnie and Fan both offer almost identical conceptual models: 
Nation Brand Identity (key components)  Communicators/Vectors of Nation Brand 
Identity  Nation Brand Image (audiences‘) (Dinnie, 2008, Appendix 1) 
(Self) Identity  Positioning /Nation branding  Image (held by other) (Fan, 2008) 
Both Dinnie and Fan present the formation of nation image as a complex process in which 
images of the nation held by different audiences/stakeholders (Fan calls these images – 
―perspectives‖) interact with each other, while self perception, ―i.e. how a nation sees or believes 
itself‖, plays a dominant role. 
At the same time, Fan looks at a nation as a complex organization. He then applies Albert and 
Whetten‘s (1985) organization identity theory and the concept of organization image in the 
context of nation image and develops a conceptual framework for the analysis of nation image. 
Drawing upon Brown et al.‘s original framework (2006) of four central ―viewpoints‖ of 
organization image, Fan adds two new viewpoints and presents a total of six viewpoints, or as he 
calls them - ―key perspectives‖ on nation image in a unified model, which he summarizes in a 
table of 6 key perspectives that according to him are factors in the formation of nation image 

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