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The Concept Of Online Image Of A Brand And Its Application To Nation Brands
Unformatted Document Text:  Giorgi Topouria: The Concept Of Online Image Of A Brand And Its Application To Nation Brands 14 (Appendix 3, 4). These key perspectives are: 1. Self perception / Identity: How does Nation A see itself? 2. Perception of significant other(s): How does Nation A see Nation B? 3. Construed image: What does Nation A believe Nation B thinks of it? 4. Actual image – Reputation: How is Nation A actually perceived by Nation B? 5. Currently projected image: How is Nation A promoting itself to Nation B? 6. Desired future image / Positioning: How does Nation A want to be perceived by Nation B? (Fan, 2008) Here, it should also be emphasized that the language factor is extremely important for the formation of a brand image in general and especially in case of nation-brands, since brand image is likely to be different in different languages. What a brand image is in English is different from what it is in Russian, or French, or Chinese, etc. Brand can have a strong image in one language environment and nonexistent in the other. In different languages, brands are perceived to have different attributes, characteristics, personalities, etc. This would be especially true in case of nations/countries: nation image is different for different stakeholders in general, and especially so if these stakeholders communicate and function in different languages, since they will be forming their corresponding images based on different information. To analyze complex relationships between the identified six perspectives on nation image within his model, Fan suggests adopting gap analysis, in order to find discrepancies between them (Appendix 4). Fan states that this is precisely the task of nation branding ―to identify and analyze the gaps, and hopefully to reduce these gaps through new communications‖. The smaller the gaps between different perspectives of nation image, the more robust and harmonious the nation- brand. If the suggested six perspectives of nation image within this model could be measured and compared, it would facilitate understanding of the complex relationships and gaps between these different perspectives and how they affect the formation of a nation image. This understanding

Authors: Topouria, Giorgi.
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Giorgi Topouria: The Concept Of Online Image Of A Brand And Its Application To Nation Brands  
(Appendix 3, 4).  These key perspectives are: 
Self perception / Identity: How does Nation A see itself? 
Perception of significant other(s): How does Nation A see Nation B? 
Construed image: What does Nation A believe Nation B thinks of it? 
Actual image – Reputation: How is Nation A actually perceived by Nation B? 
Currently projected image: How is Nation A promoting itself to Nation B? 
Desired future image / Positioning: How does Nation A want to be perceived by Nation 
B? (Fan, 2008) 
Here, it should also be emphasized that the language factor is extremely important for the 
formation of a brand image in general and especially in case of nation-brands, since brand image 
is likely to be different in different languages. What a brand image is in English is different from 
what it is in Russian, or French, or Chinese, etc. Brand can have a strong image in one language 
environment and nonexistent in the other. In different languages, brands are perceived to have 
different attributes, characteristics, personalities, etc. This would be especially true in case of 
nations/countries: nation image is different for different stakeholders in general, and especially 
so if these stakeholders communicate and function in different languages, since they will be 
forming their corresponding images based on different information. 
To analyze complex relationships between the identified six perspectives on nation image within 
his model, Fan suggests adopting gap analysis, in order to find discrepancies between them 
(Appendix 4). Fan states that this is precisely the task of nation branding ―to identify and analyze 
the gaps, and hopefully to reduce these gaps through new communications‖. The smaller the 
gaps between different perspectives of nation image, the more robust and harmonious the nation-
If the suggested six perspectives of nation image within this model could be measured and 
compared, it would facilitate understanding of the complex relationships and gaps between these 
different perspectives and how they affect the formation of a nation image. This understanding 

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