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The Concept Of Online Image Of A Brand And Its Application To Nation Brands
Unformatted Document Text:  Giorgi Topouria: The Concept Of Online Image Of A Brand And Its Application To Nation Brands 3 As the importance and penetration of the Internet grows exponentially, a country‘s representation on the Internet – its online image, acquires increased significance in a variety of ways. This paper will explicate the concept of online image of a brand and integrate this concept into the existing model of formation of country‘s overall image. It will also define the directions for future research of the effects that it is having on the countries/nations‘ reputation and global competitiveness. Literature Review Brand Theory In the last few decades, brand theory was developed within the marketing field and provided the basic framework for research on brands and branding. The most common definitions of a brand fall into two main categories: definitions that focus on the visual manifestation of a brand, and somewhat deeper definitions that look beyond just manifestations and try to capture the essence of what a brand is (Dinnie, 2008). An often-cited definition is the one by Doyle (1992), who suggests that ―a successful brand is a name, symbol, design, or some combination, which identifies the ‗product‘ of a particular organization as having a sustainable differential advantage‖. The American Marketing Association (AMA) offers a similar definition. On the other hand, Macrae, Parkinson and Sheerman (1995) offer the definition that also incorporates consumer perspective: ―a unique combination of characteristics and added values, both functional and non-functional, which have taken on a relevant meaning that is inextricably linked to the brand, awareness of which might be conscious or intuitive‖ (Dinnie, 2008). Lynch and Chernatony (2004) suggest that brands are clusters of functional and emotional values that promise a unique and welcome experience between a buyer and a seller.

Authors: Topouria, Giorgi.
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Giorgi Topouria: The Concept Of Online Image Of A Brand And Its Application To Nation Brands  
 
 
As the importance and penetration of the Internet grows exponentially, a country‘s representation 
on the Internet – its online image, acquires increased significance in a variety of ways. This 
paper will explicate the concept of online image of a brand and integrate this concept into the 
existing model of formation of country‘s overall image. It will also define the directions for 
future research of the effects that it is having on the countries/nations‘ reputation and global 
competitiveness. 
Literature Review 
Brand Theory 
In the last few decades, brand theory was developed within the marketing field and provided the 
basic framework for research on brands and branding. The most common definitions of a brand 
fall into two main categories: definitions that focus on the visual manifestation of a brand, and 
somewhat deeper definitions that look beyond just manifestations and try to capture the essence 
of what a brand is (Dinnie, 2008). An often-cited definition is the one by Doyle (1992), who 
suggests that ―a successful brand is a name, symbol, design, or some combination, which 
identifies the ‗product‘ of a particular organization as having a sustainable differential 
advantage‖.  The American Marketing Association (AMA) offers a similar definition.  On the 
other hand, Macrae, Parkinson and Sheerman (1995) offer the definition that also incorporates 
consumer perspective: ―a unique combination of characteristics and added values, both 
functional and non-functional, which have taken on a relevant meaning that is inextricably linked 
to the brand, awareness of which might be conscious or intuitive‖ (Dinnie, 2008). Lynch and 
Chernatony (2004) suggest that brands are clusters of functional and emotional values that 
promise a unique and welcome experience between a buyer and a seller. 
 


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