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The Concept Of Online Image Of A Brand And Its Application To Nation Brands
Unformatted Document Text:  Giorgi Topouria: The Concept Of Online Image Of A Brand And Its Application To Nation Brands 4 Brand Identity, Personality and Image The key elements of branding theory (among several others) are: brand identity, brand personality and brand image. These concepts have been extensively written about throughout the literature mostly as related to products, services and corporations. Brand Identity: Roll (2006) suggested five factors that are most important in determining and developing a brand identity. These are: brand vision, brand scope, brand positioning, brand personality and brand essence. Dinnie (2008) argues that the first four are directly transferable to nation brands, while the fifth – the essence, ―which is the heart and soul of a brand‖, needs careful consideration, given numerous complex factors of which a nation consists. Another approach to the definition of brand identity was offered by Lehu (2006), who suggested twelve determining components of brand identity: name, heritage, codes of expression (logo, colors, fonts), positioning, status, personality, everyday behavior, beliefs, values, projected image, attitudes of brand‘s consumers towards it, and attitude of brand towards its consumers. Among Lehu‘s above twelve components of brand identity, special attention should be paid to the ―projected image‖ of a brand. Some scholars have argued that while eleven other factors belong to the brand and, therefore, should be manageable by the brand owners, the projected image – being perception-based, is a property of the consumer and, therefore, beyond control of brand owners (Nadan, 2005). Brand Personality: a common direction in branding research is based on a notion of brand personality, which is often used interchangeably with the concept of brand identity. However, this concept is somewhat different. It was developed by transferring the personality concept from individual psychology to the marketing context. This approach is based on the assumption that brands can develop personalities similar in their characteristics to individuals (Aaker, 1997). In

Authors: Topouria, Giorgi.
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Giorgi Topouria: The Concept Of Online Image Of A Brand And Its Application To Nation Brands  
Brand Identity, Personality and Image 
The key elements of branding theory (among several others) are: brand identity, brand 
personality and brand image. These concepts have been extensively written about throughout the 
literature mostly as related to products, services and corporations.  
Brand Identity: Roll (2006) suggested five factors that are most important in determining and 
developing a brand identity. These are: brand vision, brand scope, brand positioning, brand 
personality and brand essence. Dinnie (2008) argues that the first four are directly transferable to 
nation brands, while the fifth – the essence, ―which is the heart and soul of a brand‖, needs 
careful consideration, given numerous complex factors of which a nation consists. 
Another approach to the definition of brand identity was offered by Lehu (2006), who suggested 
twelve determining components of brand identity: name, heritage, codes of expression (logo, 
colors, fonts), positioning, status, personality, everyday behavior, beliefs, values, projected 
image, attitudes of brand‘s consumers towards it, and attitude of brand towards its consumers. 
Among Lehu‘s above twelve components of brand identity, special attention should be paid to 
the ―projected image‖ of a brand. Some scholars have argued that while eleven other factors 
belong to the brand and, therefore, should be manageable by the brand owners, the projected 
image – being perception-based, is a property of the consumer and, therefore, beyond control of 
brand owners (Nadan, 2005). 
Brand Personality: a common direction in branding research is based on a notion of brand 
personality, which is often used interchangeably with the concept of brand identity. However, 
this concept is somewhat different. It was developed by transferring the personality concept from 
individual psychology to the marketing context. This approach is based on the assumption that 
brands can develop personalities similar in their characteristics to individuals (Aaker, 1997). In 

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