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The Concept Of Online Image Of A Brand And Its Application To Nation Brands
Unformatted Document Text:  Giorgi Topouria: The Concept Of Online Image Of A Brand And Its Application To Nation Brands 5 this widely cited work, Aaker describes brand personality as the ―set of human characteristics associated with a brand‖ and proposes to measure brand personality on a 42 item Brand Personality Scale (BPS) that assesses a brand across five key dimensions of brand personality: sincerity, excitement, competence, sophistication and ruggedness (Pitt et al., 2005). Another similar approach is modification and adaptation of the framework of the Five-Factor Model of personality traits which is frequently referred to as FFM or the Big Five. FFM is a hierarchy of five personality dimensions that are found to be characteristic and readily identifiable: Extraversion (E), Agreeableness (A), Conscientiousness (C), Neuroticism (N), and Openness to Experience (O) (Outhavongs, 2007). The practice of looking at brands from personality perspective has also become quite wide- spread in every day life, as well as in the media – one often encounters references to brands using adjectives normally used in relationship to humans, for example: young brands, old brands, strong brands, healthy brands, gay brands, sexy brands, tasteless brands, macho brands, honest brands, respectable brands, joyful brands, etc. Brand Image: Brand image is another one of the most important concepts that have been developed within brand theory. Its definition is usually perception-based and is related to the concept of brand identity or personality, for example: ―the totality of consumer perceptions about the brand, or how they see it, which may not coincide with the brand identity. Companies have to work hard on the consumer experience to make sure that what customers see and think is what they want them to‖ (Temporal, 2002). American Marketing Association (AMA) defines brand image similarly: as a ―perception of a brand in the minds of persons. The brand image is a mirror reflection (though perhaps inaccurate) of the brand personality or product being. It is what people believe about a brand — their thoughts, feelings, expectations‖ (2007). Another similar

Authors: Topouria, Giorgi.
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Giorgi Topouria: The Concept Of Online Image Of A Brand And Its Application To Nation Brands  
this widely cited work, Aaker describes brand personality as the ―set of human characteristics 
associated with a brand‖ and proposes to measure brand personality on a 42 item Brand 
Personality Scale (BPS) that assesses a brand across five key dimensions of brand personality: 
sincerity, excitement, competence, sophistication and ruggedness (Pitt et al., 2005). 
Another similar approach is modification and adaptation of the framework of the Five-Factor 
Model of personality traits which is frequently referred to as FFM or the Big Five. FFM is a 
hierarchy of five personality dimensions that are found to be characteristic and readily 
identifiable: Extraversion (E), Agreeableness (A), Conscientiousness (C), Neuroticism (N), and 
Openness to Experience (O) (Outhavongs, 2007). 
The practice of looking at brands from personality perspective has also become quite wide-
spread in every day life, as well as in the media – one often encounters references to brands 
using adjectives normally used in relationship to humans, for example: young brands, old brands, 
strong brands, healthy brands, gay brands, sexy brands, tasteless brands, macho brands, honest 
brands, respectable brands, joyful brands, etc. 
Brand ImageBrand image is another one of the most important concepts that have been 
developed within brand theory. Its definition is usually perception-based and is related to the 
concept of brand identity or personality, for example: ―the totality of consumer perceptions about 
the brand, or how they see it, which may not coincide with the brand identity. Companies have to 
work hard on the consumer experience to make sure that what customers see and think is what 
they want them to‖ (Temporal, 2002). American Marketing Association (AMA) defines brand 
image similarly: as a ―perception of a brand in the minds of persons. The brand image is a mirror 
reflection (though perhaps inaccurate) of the brand personality or product being. It is what 
people believe about a brand — their thoughts, feelings, expectations‖ (2007). Another similar 

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