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The Concept Of Online Image Of A Brand And Its Application To Nation Brands
Unformatted Document Text:  Giorgi Topouria: The Concept Of Online Image Of A Brand And Its Application To Nation Brands 7 Along with many other characteristics of a brand, brand image is thought to play a very important role in purchase or investment decision-making by brand audiences. Thus, brand image serves as one of the main factors for determining brand equity and valuation and, therefore, it becomes one of the decisive factors that lead to the success or failure of a brand. Nation-Brand and Nation-Branding In the last 10 to 15 years, the approach of treating nations as brands was developed as many scholars and practitioners made attempts to adapt and apply brand theory and related concepts to nations/countries (Anholt, 2004; Dinnie, 2008; Olins, 1999; Outhavong, 2007; Van Ham, 2001). This approach has become known as nation branding. With the rapid process of globalization and the resulting exponential growth in global competition, nations increasingly find themselves facing numerous challenges in both international and domestic markets. Under such circumstances, nations turn to branding techniques as a way to acquire competitive advantage in order to attract tourism, investments and talent, boost exports, maintain stability, improve economy, enter partnerships, achieve international credibility, acquire respect and confidence, etc. (Anholt, 2008; Cromwell & Kyriacou, 2009). Nation branding becomes especially important for transitional and new countries, such as Central and Eastern European states and countries of Central Asia and Africa, since these countries often have damaged brand images, or as in case of newly formed countries – may not have a recognizable brand image at all. These countries need either to re-brand themselves or build an entirely new brand (Vaknin, 2009). Many scholars, as well as branding/marketing/communication practitioners (Kotler and Gertner, 2002, Olins, 1999, Van Ham, 2001) share the view that image and reputation have become critical parts of states‘ strategic equity, and a powerful nation brand can provide the country with

Authors: Topouria, Giorgi.
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Giorgi Topouria: The Concept Of Online Image Of A Brand And Its Application To Nation Brands  
Along with many other characteristics of a brand, brand image is thought to play a very 
important role in purchase or investment decision-making by brand audiences. Thus, brand 
image serves as one of the main factors for determining brand equity and valuation and, 
therefore, it becomes one of the decisive factors that lead to the success or failure of a brand. 
Nation-Brand and Nation-Branding 
In the last 10 to 15 years, the approach of treating nations as brands was developed as many 
scholars and practitioners made attempts to adapt and apply brand theory and related concepts to 
nations/countries (Anholt, 2004; Dinnie, 2008; Olins, 1999; Outhavong, 2007; Van Ham, 2001). 
This approach has become known as nation branding. 
With the rapid process of globalization and the resulting exponential growth in global 
competition, nations increasingly find themselves facing numerous challenges in both 
international and domestic markets. Under such circumstances, nations turn to branding 
techniques as a way to acquire competitive advantage in order to attract tourism, investments and 
talent, boost exports, maintain stability, improve economy, enter partnerships, achieve 
international credibility, acquire respect and confidence, etc. (Anholt, 2008; Cromwell & 
Kyriacou, 2009). Nation branding becomes especially important for transitional and new 
countries, such as Central and Eastern European states and countries of Central Asia and Africa, 
since these countries often have damaged brand images, or as in case of newly formed countries 
– may not have a recognizable brand image at all. These countries need either to re-brand 
themselves or build an entirely new brand (Vaknin, 2009).  
Many scholars, as well as branding/marketing/communication practitioners (Kotler and Gertner, 
2002, Olins, 1999, Van Ham, 2001) share the view that image and reputation have become 
critical parts of states‘ strategic equity, and a powerful nation brand can provide the country with 

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