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The Concept Of Online Image Of A Brand And Its Application To Nation Brands
Unformatted Document Text:  Giorgi Topouria: The Concept Of Online Image Of A Brand And Its Application To Nation Brands 8 a competitive advantage in the global marketplace. Fan (2008) makes a very important observation: ―A nation brand exists with or without any conscious efforts in nation branding, as every country has a current image to its international audience, be it strong or weak, clear or vague‖ (p. 5). Olins (2002) also suggests that nations have always branded themselves through the variety of means, such as: national symbols, flags, anthems, names, currency, etc. Thus, the practice of branding a nation is not new, however until recently it has not been referred to as such and it‘s the corresponding terminology that is new. In his comprehensive book about nation branding, Dinnie (2008) identifies the origins of nation branding in the interaction and eventual merger of two concepts: National Identity and Country- of-Origin. The former resides within the broader academic discipline of political geography, international relations, political science, cultural anthropology, social psychology, political philosophy, international law, sociology and history; while the later originates from such components of marketing discipline as: consumer behavior, advertising and promotional management, brand management, export marketing, etc. This interaction and merger of the above two important concepts took place within the context of economic globalization, move towards information society, homogenization of the markets and segmentation of audiences/consumers. At the same time, these processes also brought about a simultaneous trend towards increased sense of national identity. All of this in conjunction led to the emergence of nation branding discipline as various countries started to adopt brand management approaches and techniques in order to become more competitive in the global marketplace. Perhaps, the key moment for the completion of the above merging of the two concepts was the publication of the special 2002 issue of Journal of Brand Management (JBM) devoted to nation-branding and featuring articles by leading scholars and consultants in the field.

Authors: Topouria, Giorgi.
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Giorgi Topouria: The Concept Of Online Image Of A Brand And Its Application To Nation Brands  
 
 
a competitive advantage in the global marketplace. Fan (2008) makes a very important 
observation: ―A nation brand exists with or without any conscious efforts in nation branding, as 
every country has a current image to its international audience, be it strong or weak, clear or 
vague‖ (p. 5). Olins (2002) also suggests that nations have always branded themselves through 
the variety of means, such as: national symbols, flags, anthems, names, currency, etc. Thus, the 
practice of branding a nation is not new, however until recently it has not been referred to as 
such and it‘s the corresponding terminology that is new.  
In his comprehensive book about nation branding, Dinnie (2008) identifies the origins of nation 
branding in the interaction and eventual merger of two concepts: National Identity and Country-
of-Origin. The former resides within the broader academic discipline of political geography, 
international relations, political science, cultural anthropology, social psychology, political 
philosophy, international law, sociology and history; while the later originates from such 
components of marketing discipline as: consumer behavior, advertising and promotional 
management, brand management, export marketing, etc. This interaction and merger of the 
above two important concepts took place within the context of economic globalization, move 
towards information society, homogenization of the markets and segmentation of 
audiences/consumers. At the same time, these processes also brought about a simultaneous trend 
towards increased sense of national identity. All of this in conjunction led to the emergence of 
nation branding discipline as various countries started to adopt brand management approaches 
and techniques in order to become more competitive in the global marketplace. Perhaps, the key 
moment for the completion of the above merging of the two concepts was the publication of the 
special 2002 issue of Journal of Brand Management (JBM) devoted to nation-branding and 
featuring articles by leading scholars and consultants in the field.  


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