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The Concept Of Online Image Of A Brand And Its Application To Nation Brands
Unformatted Document Text:  Giorgi Topouria: The Concept Of Online Image Of A Brand And Its Application To Nation Brands 9 There is a substantial body of literature on nation-brands, but large proportion of the work from various researchers and professionals in the field tends to be descriptive (Outhavongs, 2007; Dinnie, 2008; Fan 2008; Lee 2009). Perhaps, the nature of nation-brands itself leads to the abundance of case studies and observations devoted to particular countries, but most of the work in this area does not provide definitive and valid measures capable of differentiating and isolating specific variables that would relate to the concept of nation-brand in general. Most of these articles, coming from practitioners and academics, tend to be descriptive case studies instead of prescriptive methods for analyzing nation-brands (Outhavongs, 2007) and as such are often too narrow in their focus on specific countries. Outhavongs rightfully suggests that the issue of nation-brands should be approached from a macro view with broader-reaching implications. To make matters worse, there still is no operationally sound and generally accepted definition of a nation-brand (Fan, 2009). The term is often used loosely with the general assumption that a nation-brand is any attribute associated with a country that affects that country‘s brand image. The problem here is that there is no clear definition of a nation-brand and what attributes make up a nation-brand (Outhavongs, 2007). Dinnie (2008) suggests the following definition: ―the unique multi-dimensional blend of elements that provide the nation with culturally grounded differentiation and relevance for all of its target audiences‖. On the other hand, Fan (2006, 2009) suggested the following definitions: ―A nation-brand can be defined as the total sum of all mental associations about a nation in the mind of international stakeholders,‖ while ―Nation- branding is a process by which a nation‘s images can be created, monitored, evaluated and proactively managed in order to improve or enhance the country‘s reputation among a target international audience.‖

Authors: Topouria, Giorgi.
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Giorgi Topouria: The Concept Of Online Image Of A Brand And Its Application To Nation Brands  
There is a substantial body of literature on nation-brands, but large proportion of the work from 
various researchers and professionals in the field tends to be descriptive (Outhavongs, 2007; 
Dinnie, 2008; Fan 2008; Lee 2009). Perhaps, the nature of nation-brands itself leads to the 
abundance of case studies and observations devoted to particular countries, but most of the work 
in this area does not provide definitive and valid measures capable of differentiating and 
isolating specific variables that would relate to the concept of nation-brand in general. Most of 
these articles, coming from practitioners and academics, tend to be descriptive case studies 
instead of prescriptive methods for analyzing nation-brands (Outhavongs, 2007) and as such are 
often too narrow in their focus on specific countries. Outhavongs rightfully suggests that the 
issue of nation-brands should be approached from a macro view with broader-reaching 
To make matters worse, there still is no operationally sound and generally accepted definition of 
a nation-brand (Fan, 2009). The term is often used loosely with the general assumption that a 
nation-brand is any attribute associated with a country that affects that country‘s brand image. 
The problem here is that there is no clear definition of a nation-brand and what attributes make 
up a nation-brand (Outhavongs, 2007). Dinnie (2008) suggests the following definition: ―the 
unique multi-dimensional blend of elements that provide the nation with culturally grounded 
differentiation and relevance for all of its target audiences‖. On the other hand, Fan (2006, 2009) 
suggested the following definitions: ―A nation-brand can be defined as the total sum of all 
mental associations about a nation in the mind of international stakeholders,‖ while ―Nation-
branding is a process by which a nation‘s images can be created, monitored, evaluated and 
proactively managed in order to improve or enhance the country‘s reputation among a target 
international audience.‖  

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