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Seeking to understand interactivity in church websites
Unformatted Document Text:  Seeking to understand interactivity in church websites human-to–computer features were menus and submenus, text and graphic links, drop-down boxes, search functions, or site maps. An average of 6.17 types of human-to-computer interactions are found on the first page of church websites and 7.14 features are added at level 2. Human-to-human interaction was the second most common form of interaction with 1.54 features appearing on the opening pages and 1.83 additional features on subsequent pages. The increase of human-to-human interactivity from first level pages to second level pages is due to e- mail addresses in “contact us” sections. It was common for churches to have multiple e-mail addresses at this level. As was the case for McMillan et al., (2008) nearly every site had a contact us section with e-mail. While human-to-human features showed a strong, positive correlation (r= .788; p < .001), this is not likely a predictor of overall interactivity, given that only four sites did not have an e-mail contact option. Human-to-content interaction was almost non-existent with an average presence of 0.41 per page. The most common human-to-content interaction was customizable church event lists or calendars. McMillan et al. (2008) found that sites with human-to-content interactivity were more likely to be among the most interactive sites, as was the case in this study. Human-to-Computer Interactivity Research question 2 focused on human-to-computer interactivity. To provide broader understanding, these categories were divided into standard and personalized interactivity, and then additionally into categories of facilitating navigation, action, or transaction (McMillan et al., 2008). See Table 2. Standard features were significantly more common overall with an average of 6.9 features per site compared to 2.63 personalized features (t = 11.73, df = 99; p < .001). Differences were also found for transaction and navigation features. Standard features were more 17

Authors: Broaddus, Matthew.
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Seeking to understand interactivity in church websites
human-to–computer features were menus and submenus, text and graphic links, drop-down 
boxes, search functions, or site maps. An average of 6.17 types of human-to-computer 
interactions are found on the first page of church websites and 7.14 features are added at level 2. 
Human-to-human interaction was the second most common form of interaction with 1.54 
features appearing on the opening pages and 1.83 additional features on subsequent pages. The 
increase of human-to-human interactivity from first level pages to second level pages is due to e-
mail addresses in “contact us” sections. It was common for churches to have multiple e-mail 
addresses at this level. As was the case for McMillan et al., (2008) nearly every site had a contact 
us section with e-mail. While human-to-human features showed a strong, positive correlation (r= 
.788; p < .001), this is not likely a predictor of overall interactivity, given that only four sites did 
not have an e-mail contact option.  
Human-to-content interaction was almost non-existent with an average presence of 0.41 
per page. The most common human-to-content interaction was customizable church event lists or 
calendars. McMillan et al. (2008) found that sites with human-to-content interactivity were more 
likely to be among the most interactive sites, as was the case in this study. 
Human-to-Computer Interactivity
Research question 2 focused on human-to-computer interactivity.  To provide broader 
understanding, these categories were divided into standard and personalized interactivity, and 
then additionally into categories of facilitating navigation, action, or transaction (McMillan et al., 
2008). See Table 2. Standard features were significantly more common overall with an average 
of 6.9 features per site compared to 2.63 personalized features (t = 11.73, df = 99; p < .001). 
Differences were also found for transaction and navigation features. Standard features were more 
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