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Seeking to understand interactivity in church websites
Unformatted Document Text:  Seeking to understand interactivity in church websites Research question 3 looks at human-to-human interaction, (see Table 3). This interactivity was divided into organization-to-individual, individual-to-individual, and social media. The social media category was not present in McMillan et al. (2008). These categories were coded according to the immediate (asynchronous v. synchronous) nature of the function. Total organizational/individual interactivity was significantly higher than individual/individual with means of 2.41 and .36 features respectively (t = 8.94, df = 99, p < .001), as was asynchronous interactivity (t = 9.04, df = 99, p < .001) but not for synchronous (t = 3.32, df = 99, p = .74) human-to-human interactivity features. These findings mirror those of McMillan et al. (2008). A significant difference was found between asynchronous social media functions (.60) and synchronous social media option (0) (t = 6.16, df = 99, p < .001), but the lack of any synchronous social media functions calls that significance into question. Asynchronous communication between the organization and the individual was the most common interactivity at this level, with it being present an average of 2.37 per site. This interactivity feature was usually e-mail, and was present in 93 percent of sites. Five percent of the sites offered synchronous communication between the organization and the individual. This function was normally a live chat function. The next most frequent form of human-to-human interaction was tools that facilitated asynchronous communication between individuals. Only 22 percent of the sites had this function. This is similar to McMillan et al. (2008) findings, with only 30 percent of sites having these tools. The presence of synchronous human-to-human interactivity was not a significant predictor of overall site interactivity, while a high, positive correlation was found for organization-to-individual interactivity (r = .702; p < .001) and a moderate positive correlation (r .537; p < .001) was found for total asynchronous features. Again, 19

Authors: Broaddus, Matthew.
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Seeking to understand interactivity in church websites
Research question 3 looks at human-to-human interaction, (see Table 3). This interactivity 
was divided into organization-to-individual, individual-to-individual, and social media. The 
social media category was not present in McMillan et al. (2008).  These categories were coded 
according to the immediate (asynchronous v. synchronous) nature of the function. 
Total organizational/individual interactivity was significantly higher than individual/individual 
with means of 2.41 and .36 features respectively (t = 8.94, df = 99, p  < .001), as was 
asynchronous interactivity (t = 9.04, df = 99, p  < .001) but not for synchronous (t = 3.32, df = 
99, p = .74) human-to-human interactivity features. These findings mirror those of McMillan et 
al. (2008).  A significant difference was found between asynchronous social media functions 
(.60) and synchronous social media option (0)  (t = 6.16, df = 99, p  < .001), but the lack of any 
synchronous social media functions calls that significance into question. 
Asynchronous communication between the organization and the individual was the most 
common interactivity at this level, with it being present an average of 2.37 per site. This 
interactivity feature was usually e-mail, and was present in 93 percent of sites. Five percent of 
the sites offered synchronous communication between the organization and the individual. This 
function was normally a live chat function. The next most frequent form of human-to-human 
interaction was tools that facilitated asynchronous communication between individuals. Only 22 
percent of the sites had this function. This is similar to McMillan et al. (2008) findings, with only 
30 percent of sites having these tools. The presence of synchronous human-to-human 
interactivity was not a significant predictor of overall site interactivity, while a high, positive 
correlation was found for organization-to-individual interactivity (r = .702; p < .001) and a 
moderate positive correlation (r .537; p < .001) was found for total asynchronous features. Again, 
19


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