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Does c’ Test Help, Anytime? -- On Communication Fallacy of “Effect to Mediate”
Unformatted Document Text:  Does c’ Test Help, Anytime? -- On Communication Fallacy of “Effect to Mediate” Page 4 of 34 With the help of Figure 1, Baron and Kenny (1986) laid out a step-by-step procedure for testing mediation (Baron & Kenny, 1986; words in parenthesis added): A variable functions as a mediator when it meets the following conditions: (a) variations in levels of the independent variable significantly account for variations in the presumed mediator (i.e., Path a), (b) variations in the mediator significantly account for variations in the dependent variable (i.e., Path b), and (c) when Paths a and b are controlled, a previously significant relations between the independent and dependent variables is no longer significant, with the strongest demonstration of mediation occurring when Path c is zero. (p. 1176) ------------------------- Figure 1 about Here -------------------------- The procedure also includes three equations: To test mediation, one should estimate the three following regression equations: first, regressing the mediator on the independent variable (Eq. 1); second, regressing the dependent variable on the independent variable (Eq. 2); and third, regressing the dependent variable on both the independent variable and on the mediator (Eq. 3). (p. 1177, words in parenthesis added) They are followed by three tests (p. 1177, words in parentheses added):

Authors: Zhao, XinShu., Chen, Qimei. and Tong, Bing.
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Does c’ Test Help, Anytime? -- On Communication Fallacy of “Effect to Mediate” 
Page 4 of 34 
 
 
With the help of Figure 1, Baron and Kenny (1986) laid out a step-by-step procedure for 
testing mediation (Baron & Kenny, 1986; words in parenthesis added):  
 
   
A variable functions as a mediator when it meets the following conditions: 
(a) variations in levels of the independent variable significantly account for 
variations in the presumed mediator (i.e., Path a), (b) variations in the mediator 
significantly account for variations in the dependent variable (i.e., Path b), and (c) 
when Paths a and b are controlled, a previously significant relations between the 
independent and dependent variables is no longer significant, with the strongest 
demonstration of mediation occurring when Path c is zero. (p. 1176) 
 
------------------------- 
Figure 1 about Here 
-------------------------- 
 
 
The procedure also includes three equations: 
 
   
To test mediation, one should estimate the three following regression 
equations: first, regressing the mediator on the independent variable (Eq. 1); 
second, regressing the dependent variable on the independent variable (Eq. 2); and 
third, regressing the dependent variable on both the independent variable and on the 
mediator (Eq. 3). (p. 1177, words in parenthesis added)  
 
  They are followed by three tests (p. 1177, words in parentheses added): 
   


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