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Elaboration, content preference and framing: Effects of “Incompetent Authority” frame in China-made product recall coverage
Unformatted Document Text:  Elaboration, content preference and framing First, a manipulation check assesses the effectiveness of frame manipulation. Based on the discussion above, frame exposure was measured as a predictor of frame-related activation. Issue involvement, issue knowledge and content preferences predict elaboration depth. Elaboration was interacted with frame-related activation to predict attitude to Chinese products and causal attribution of the product safety issue. Manipulation check assessed how much subjects agreed that “This news story calls attention to the responsibility of Chinese product safety regulators” on a 7-point item (1=strongly disagree, 7=strongly agree). Frame exposure was measured with a binary variable to record whether a subject read the framed (coded 1) or the original stimulus (coded 0). Issue involvement was gauged with a six-item 7-point Likert scale adapted from Bower and Taylor (2003). Subjects reported agreement to statements like “I carefully considered information presented in the news story” (1=strongly disagree, 7=strongly agree). Issue knowledge was measured with a five-item 7-point Likert scale borrowed from Flynn, Goldsmith and Eastman (1996). Subjects indicated agreement to statements such as “I know pretty much about the Chinese product safety issue” (1=strongly disagree, 7=strongly agree). Causal attribution was measured on a 7-point item. Subjects were asked to rate the importance of “the incompetence of Chinese government to regulate manufacture industry” as an explanation for the presence of unsafe Chinese products on the U.S. market (e.g., Feagin, 1972; Kluegel & Smith, 1986). Attitude to China-made products was assessed with four 7-point semantic differential scale items (Holbrook & Batra, 1987). Subjects rated made-in-China products on continuums

Authors: Pan, Ji.
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Elaboration, content preference and framing
First, a manipulation check assesses the effectiveness of frame manipulation. Based on 
the discussion above, frame exposure was measured as a predictor of frame-related 
activation. Issue involvement, issue knowledge and content preferences predict elaboration 
depth.  Elaboration was interacted with frame-related activation to predict attitude to Chinese 
products and causal attribution of the product safety issue.  
Manipulation check assessed how much subjects agreed that “This news story calls 
attention to the responsibility of Chinese product safety regulators” on a 7-point item 
(1=strongly disagree, 7=strongly agree). 
Frame exposure was measured with a binary variable to record whether a subject read 
the framed (coded 1) or the original stimulus (coded 0). 
Issue involvement was gauged with a six-item 7-point Likert scale adapted from Bower 
and Taylor (2003). Subjects reported agreement to statements like “I carefully considered 
information presented in the news story” (1=strongly disagree, 7=strongly agree). 
Issue knowledge was measured with a five-item 7-point Likert scale borrowed from 
Flynn, Goldsmith and Eastman (1996). Subjects indicated agreement to statements such as “I 
know pretty much about the Chinese product safety issue” (1=strongly disagree, 7=strongly 
Causal attribution was measured on a 7-point item. Subjects were asked to rate the 
importance of “the incompetence of Chinese government to regulate manufacture industry” 
as an explanation for the presence of unsafe Chinese products on the U.S. market (e.g., 
Feagin, 1972; Kluegel & Smith, 1986).  
Attitude to China-made products was assessed with four 7-point semantic differential 
scale items (Holbrook & Batra, 1987). Subjects rated made-in-China products on continuums 

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