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Elaboration, content preference and framing: Effects of “Incompetent Authority” frame in China-made product recall coverage
Unformatted Document Text:  Elaboration, content preference and framing like “good-bad”, “like-dislike”, and “pleasant-unpleasant”. Content preferences were measured by 7-point items borrowed from the Pew Institute Biennial Media Consumption Survey (2008). Subjects were asked how closely they followed media contents on politics, consumer news, science and technology (1= not at all closely, 7=very closely). Elaboration depth was assessed with a thought-listing procedure (Iyengar, 1993). We asked subjects to “list all thoughts that came to mind while you were reading” on six blank lines, each for a separate line. Subjects were told not to worry about writing complete sentences, punctuation, spelling or grammar. The total number of thoughts a subject listed indicated elaboration depth (0 to 6). A content analysis of all listed thoughts was conducted to assess frame-related activation (Semetko & Valkenburg, 2000; Eagly & Chaiken 1993). A binary variable records whether each thought suggested Chinese authority’s responsibility for the product safety issue, or not (1=yes, 0=no). The total score a particular subject got indicated the level of activation related to the “Incompetent Authority” frame. As control variables, demographics including age, gender, income and race as well as consumer ethnocentrism values were analyzed. Consumer ethnocentrism was measured with the three most reliable 7-point items from the CETSCALE scale (Shimp & Sharma, 1987). Subjects reported agreement to statements such as “It is not right to purchase foreign products, because it puts Americans out of jobs”. Findings To address the hypotheses and research questions, regression analyses were conducted. Frame treatment was analyzed as a binary variable in regression models together with

Authors: Pan, Ji.
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Elaboration, content preference and framing
like “good-bad”, “like-dislike”, and “pleasant-unpleasant”.
Content preferences were measured by 7-point items borrowed from the Pew Institute 
Biennial Media Consumption Survey (2008). Subjects were asked how closely they followed 
media contents on politics, consumer news, science and technology (1= not at all closely, 
7=very closely).
Elaboration depth was assessed with a thought-listing procedure (Iyengar, 1993). We 
asked subjects to “list all thoughts that came to mind while you were reading” on six blank 
lines, each for a separate line. Subjects were told not to worry about writing complete 
sentences, punctuation, spelling or grammar. The total number of thoughts a subject listed 
indicated elaboration depth (0 to 6). 
A content analysis of all listed thoughts was conducted to assess frame-related 
activation (Semetko & Valkenburg, 2000; Eagly & Chaiken 1993). A binary variable records 
whether each thought suggested Chinese authority’s responsibility for the product safety 
issue, or not (1=yes, 0=no). The total score a particular subject got indicated the level of 
activation related to the “Incompetent Authority” frame. 
As control variables, demographics including age, gender, income and race as well as 
consumer ethnocentrism values were analyzed. Consumer ethnocentrism was measured with 
the three most reliable 7-point items from the CETSCALE scale (Shimp & Sharma, 1987). 
Subjects reported agreement to statements such as “It is not right to purchase foreign 
products, because it puts Americans out of jobs”. 
To address the hypotheses and research questions, regression analyses were conducted. 
Frame treatment was analyzed as a binary variable in regression models together with 

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