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Elaboration, content preference and framing: Effects of “Incompetent Authority” frame in China-made product recall coverage
Unformatted Document Text:  Elaboration, content preference and framing This study contributes to framing literature by addressing the above issues. For the first issue, we attempt to re-connect framing effects to newsroom culture that constrains the journalistic building of media frames. A veteran journalist, who has been immersed in the U.S. newsroom culture for eight years, was invited to manipulate our stimulus. His treatment of media discourses reflects the imprint of newsroom culture to some extent. Using the manipulated story as a stimulus, a framing effect experiment is conducted to examine the different impacts of elaboration and content preferences. The coverage of Chinese product recall in particular was analyzed for both practical and theoretical reasons. A series of high-profile made-in-China product recalls on the U.S. market have rendered Chinese product safety a salient topic for media. Paint containing lead was found on China-made toys, treads were missing in made-in-China tires and foods were found contaminated. Yet, more than 40% of imported goods and 65% of recalled products in the U.S. originated from China (Saad, 2007). Media could influence public opinion about the issue and purchasing behaviours of U.S. consumers. The American way of life could be changed as consumers cautiously scrutinize the origins of products on the shelves of Wal- Mart. Theoretically, this issue fits the scope condition of framing effect theory. Framing sets in as people seek a correct evaluation with incomplete information. Chinese product safety is relevant to most people, but knowledge about it is usually neither non-existent nor complete. Literature Review Bring Newsroom Culture to Frame Manipulations Frames are latent meta-communicative structures that enable people to “locate, perceive, identify and label” texts (Goffman, 1974). They organize framing devices and reasoning devices into coherent frame packages (Gamson, 1991; Gamson & Modigliani, 1987). Framing devices are symbolic devices that cue people towards a certain definition of

Authors: Pan, Ji.
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Elaboration, content preference and framing
This study contributes to framing literature by addressing the above issues. For the first 
issue, we attempt to re-connect framing effects to newsroom culture that constrains the 
journalistic building of media frames. A veteran journalist, who has been immersed in the 
U.S. newsroom culture for eight years, was invited to manipulate our stimulus. His treatment 
of media discourses reflects the imprint of newsroom culture to some extent. Using the 
manipulated story as a stimulus, a framing effect experiment is conducted to examine the 
different impacts of elaboration and content preferences. 
The coverage of Chinese product recall in particular was analyzed for both practical and 
theoretical reasons. A series of high-profile made-in-China product recalls on the U.S. market 
have rendered Chinese product safety a salient topic for media. Paint containing lead was 
found on China-made toys, treads were missing in made-in-China tires and foods were found 
contaminated. Yet, more than 40% of imported goods and 65% of recalled products in the 
U.S. originated from China (Saad, 2007). Media could influence public opinion about the 
issue and purchasing behaviours of U.S. consumers. The American way of life could be 
changed as consumers cautiously scrutinize the origins of products on the shelves of Wal-
Mart. Theoretically, this issue fits the scope condition of framing effect theory. Framing sets 
in as people seek a correct evaluation with incomplete information. Chinese product safety is 
relevant to most people, but knowledge about it is usually neither non-existent nor complete.
Literature Review
Bring Newsroom Culture to Frame Manipulations
Frames are latent meta-communicative structures that enable people to “locate, 
perceive, identify and label” texts (Goffman, 1974). They organize framing devices and 
reasoning devices into coherent frame packages (Gamson, 1991; Gamson & Modigliani, 
1987). Framing devices are symbolic devices that cue people towards a certain definition of 

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