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Elaboration, content preference and framing: Effects of “Incompetent Authority” frame in China-made product recall coverage
Unformatted Document Text:  Elaboration, content preference and framing H1: Compared with the control group, subjects who read the framed version of the Chinese toothpaste recall story activate more thoughts on the responsibility of Chinese authorities. H2: The more thoughts on Chinese authorities’ responsibility are activated, the more negative attitude to Chinese product becomes. H3: The more thoughts on Chinese authorities’ responsibility are activated, the more subjects regard the incompetence of Chinese authorities as an important cause for the product safety issue in U.S. Elaboration as framing effects moderator? However, framing is more complex than an accessibility-based process. Knowledge (Nelson, et al., 1997), values (Shen & Edwards, 2005), information sources (Druckman, 2001; 2004), interpersonal interactions (Druckman & Bolsen, 2009) and competing frames (Chong & Druckman, 2007) have been found to moderate framing effects. Nonetheless, few studies have examined cognitive elaboration, defined as active thinking and critical evaluation of messages (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986), as a moderator. However, the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) suggests it could. The ELM predicts that as knowledge about and personal involvement with an issue increase, individuals tend to follow a central route of information processing and elaborate in- depth on an issue (e.g., Petty, Wheeler, & Bizer, 1999; Petty & Wegener, 1999). Under the central route, people endeavour to evaluate the substantive quality of an argument (O’Keefe, 1990; Areni, 2003); retrieve cognitive associations from memory; and seek an overall evaluation of the recommended remedies (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986). In contrast, when issue knowledge or involvement is low, people are more likely to follow a peripheral route and

Authors: Pan, Ji.
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Elaboration, content preference and framing
H1: Compared with the control group, subjects who read the framed version of the 
Chinese toothpaste recall story activate more thoughts on the responsibility of 
Chinese authorities. 
H2: The more thoughts on Chinese authorities’ responsibility are activated, the more 
negative attitude to Chinese product becomes. 
H3: The more thoughts on Chinese authorities’ responsibility are activated, the more 
subjects regard the incompetence of Chinese authorities as an important cause for 
the product safety issue in U.S.
Elaboration as framing effects moderator?
However, framing is more complex than an accessibility-based process. Knowledge 
(Nelson, et al., 1997), values (Shen & Edwards, 2005), information sources (Druckman, 
2001; 2004), interpersonal interactions (Druckman & Bolsen, 2009) and competing frames 
(Chong & Druckman, 2007) have been found to moderate framing effects. Nonetheless, few 
studies have examined cognitive elaboration, defined as active thinking and critical 
evaluation of messages (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986), as a moderator. However, the elaboration 
likelihood model (ELM) suggests it could. 
The ELM predicts that as knowledge about and personal involvement with an issue 
increase, individuals tend to follow a central route of information processing and elaborate in-
depth on an issue (e.g., Petty, Wheeler, & Bizer, 1999; Petty & Wegener, 1999). Under the 
central route, people endeavour to evaluate the substantive quality of an argument (O’Keefe, 
1990; Areni, 2003); retrieve cognitive associations from memory; and seek an overall 
evaluation of the recommended remedies (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986). In contrast, when issue 
knowledge or involvement is low, people are more likely to follow a peripheral route and 

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