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The Effects of LCD Panel Type on Psychology of Video Game Players and Movie Viewers
Unformatted Document Text:  2 while interacting with LCD monitors. The present study is a modest first attempt at investigating the psychology of LCD monitor users when exposed to three major panel types: S-IPS, S-PVA, and TN Panel Differences - From an Engineering Perspective TN (twisted nematic) panel has been most widely used due to the advantages of its high transmittance, simple fabrication process, and relatively low production cost (Yoon & Won, 2007). The panel’s affordable price and fast response rate have made it the most suitable panel for typical office use and fast-paced gaming. The biggest downside of the TN panel, however, is its severe off-axis image deterioration resulting in the worst viewing angle, color reproduction, and contrast ratio in LCD panel technology (Lyu et al., 2007). The panel is not recommended for movie viewing because, unlike 8-bit S-PVA and S-IPS panels that are fully capable of displaying 16.7 million colors in 24-bit true color, it only mimics the 16.7 million colors in 6-bit. To solve the drawbacks of TN panel, IPS (in- plane switching) panel was first developed by Hitachi in 1996 and later enhanced by LG Display with S-IPS (super in-plane switching) technology. The basic principle of the IPS panel was “to change the physical behavior of the liquid crystal layer by having the molecules move in parallel to the TFT and color filter layers rather than at oblique angles,” which resulted in “significantly lessened light scattering, and thus improved the picture uniformity and color fidelity when viewed from wide angles” (Barnes, 2005, p. 3). LG Display further developed the original IPS technology into a premium LCD panel with improved viewing angle, color fidelity, response time, and contrast ratio called S-IPS. Developed and manufactured by Samsung Electronics as an improved alternative to the existing PVA technology, S-PVA (super patterned vertical alignment) is a new display technology providing image quality advantages over S-IPS, including high transmittance, 2300:1 contrast ratio, and wide viewing angle with no off-axis image inversion (Lyu et al., 2007). Samsung’s new technology called “Magic Speed” claims to offer enhanced response time, rendering the S-PVA panel more suitable for gaming and other interactive applications than the traditional PVA panel. Panel Differences - From a Psychological Perspective Previous studies on the relationship between perceived viewing quality (e.g., attention, enjoyment, memory, and presence) and display screen have provided empirical explanations for consumers’ preference for large screens and high-resolution display devices. Reeves, Detenber, and Steuer (1993) showed participants short clips from action films on 35-inch and 70-inch screens, and found that the larger screen elicited a greater level of attention, sense of reality, and presence. Similar studies conducted by Lombard (1995) and Detenber and Reeves (1996) also found that participants experienced greater enjoyment and arousal and remembered content better when exposed to larger screens. High-resolution display is another key factor contributing to greater level of presence. Bocker and Muhlbach found that participants exposed to higher resolution display in a video conferencing system elicited greater sense of communicative presence (as cited in Lombard & Dittion, 1997). A later study conducted by Neuman also found that high resolution images evoked higher level of self-reported presence than did standard resolution (as cited in Lombard & Dittion, 1997). In accordance with these previous studies that explored the effects of display characteristics on viewers’ psychology, the goal of the present study is to identify the effects of LCD panel type, another display characteristic that had never been studied before, on viewers’ perceived viewing quality. Therefore, we examine the following research question: RQ: For LCD monitor users, controlling for content and time spent on the monitor, what is the effect of LCD panel type and stimulus type (Independent Variables) upon viewers’ satisfaction with image quality and technical features (i.e., response rate, viewing angle, and contrast ratio) as well as perceived level of presence and enjoyment (Dependent Variables) of movies and games?

Authors: Kim, Ki Joon. and Sundar, S. Shyam.
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while  interacting  with  LCD  monitors.  The 
present  study  is  a  modest  first  attempt  at 
investigating  the  psychology  of  LCD  monitor 
users when exposed to three major panel types: 
S-IPS, S-PVA, and TN 
Panel  Differences  -  From  an  Engineering 
TN  (twisted  nematic)  panel  has  been  most 
widely  used  due  to  the  advantages  of  its  high 
transmittance,  simple  fabrication  process,  and 
relatively  low  production  cost  (Yoon  &  Won, 
2007).  The  panel’s  affordable  price  and  fast 
response  rate  have  made  it  the  most  suitable 
panel  for  typical  office  use  and  fast-paced 
gaming. The biggest downside of the TN panel, 
however,  is  its  severe  off-axis  image 
deterioration  resulting  in  the  worst  viewing 
angle,  color  reproduction,  and  contrast  ratio  in 
LCD  panel  technology  (Lyu  et  al.,  2007).  The 
panel  is  not  recommended  for  movie  viewing 
because,  unlike  8-bit  S-PVA  and  S-IPS  panels 
that are fully capable of displaying 16.7 million 
colors in 24-bit true color, it only mimics the 16.7 
million colors in 6-bit. 
To solve the drawbacks of TN panel, IPS (in-
plane  switching)  panel  was  first  developed  by 
Hitachi  in  1996  and  later  enhanced  by  LG 
Display  with  S-IPS  (super  in-plane  switching) 
technology. The basic principle of the IPS panel 
was  “to  change  the  physical  behavior  of  the 
liquid  crystal  layer  by  having  the  molecules 
move  in  parallel  to  the  TFT  and  color  filter 
layers  rather  than  at  oblique  angles,”  which 
resulted  in  “significantly  lessened  light 
scattering,  and  thus  improved  the  picture 
uniformity and color fidelity when viewed from 
wide  angles”  (Barnes,  2005,  p.  3).  LG  Display 
further  developed  the  original  IPS  technology 
into  a  premium  LCD  panel  with  improved 
viewing angle, color fidelity, response time, and 
contrast ratio called S-IPS. 
Developed  and  manufactured  by  Samsung 
Electronics  as  an  improved  alternative  to  the 
existing  PVA  technology,  S-PVA  (super 
patterned  vertical  alignment)  is  a  new  display 
technology providing image quality advantages 
over S-IPS, including high transmittance, 2300:1 
contrast  ratio,  and  wide  viewing  angle  with  no 
off-axis  image  inversion  (Lyu  et  al.,  2007). 
Samsung’s  new  technology  called  “Magic 
Speed”  claims to  offer  enhanced  response  time, 
rendering  the  S-PVA  panel  more  suitable  for 
gaming  and  other  interactive  applications  than 
the traditional PVA panel. 
Panel  Differences  -  From  a  Psychological 
Previous studies on the relationship between 
perceived  viewing  quality  (e.g.,  attention, 
enjoyment,  memory, and  presence) and display 
screen have provided empirical explanations for 
consumers’  preference  for  large  screens  and 
Detenber, and Steuer (1993) showed participants 
short clips from action films on 35-inch and 70-
inch  screens,  and  found  that  the  larger  screen 
elicited  a  greater  level  of  attention,  sense  of 
reality, and presence. Similar studies conducted 
by  Lombard  (1995)  and  Detenber  and  Reeves 
(1996)  also  found  that  participants  experienced 
greater enjoyment and arousal and remembered 
content better when exposed to larger screens.  
High-resolution display is another key factor 
contributing to greater level of presence. Bocker 
and  Muhlbach  found  that  participants  exposed 
to  higher  resolution  display  in  a  video 
conferencing  system  elicited  greater  sense  of 
communicative presence (as cited in Lombard & 
Dittion,  1997).  A  later  study  conducted  by 
Neuman also found that high resolution images 
evoked  higher  level  of  self-reported  presence 
than  did  standard  resolution  (as  cited  in 
Lombard & Dittion, 1997). 
In  accordance  with  these  previous  studies 
characteristics  on  viewers’  psychology,  the  goal 
of  the  present  study  is  to  identify  the  effects  of 
LCD  panel  type,  another  display  characteristic 
that had never been studied before, on viewers’ 
perceived  viewing  quality.  Therefore,  we 
examine the following research question: 
RQ:  For  LCD  monitor  users,  controlling  for 
content and time spent on the monitor, what 
is the effect of LCD panel type and stimulus 
type  (Independent  Variables)  upon  viewers’ 
satisfaction with image quality and technical 
features  (i.e.,  response  rate,  viewing  angle, 
and contrast ratio) as well as perceived level 
of  presence  and  enjoyment  (Dependent 
Variables) of movies and games? 

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