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The Effects of LCD Panel Type on Psychology of Video Game Players and Movie Viewers
Unformatted Document Text:  7 to be worth the added expense. But then, our interaction findings indicate that IPS panel, which is half the price, will do just as well for gaming (and presumably other interactive TV experiences) as long as the user is computer-literate. Unexpectedly, computer literacy turned out to be quite a significant predictor. For gaming, participants with higher computer literacy level were more satisfied with their overall viewing experience while experiencing greater realism and presence and were more satisfied with their overall viewing experience. However, a reverse relationship was found for movie-watching. We may interpret this as follows: individuals with high computer literacy level tend to focus more on active interaction with technology (i.e., playing the game using both mouse and keyboard simultaneously), whereas those with low computer literacy level focus more on the content (i.e., movie) delivered to them. This provides valuable insights for future studies on the relationship between computer literacy and technology acceptance. The implications of the present study suggest that display engineers and manufacturers should be looking more carefully at how panel characteristics (e.g., response rate, viewing angle, and contrast ratio) affect and interact with users’ viewing/interaction experience and overall enjoyment. The main effect for stimulus type suggests that interactive use of TV display systems, such as in games, leads to inherently lower ratings of panel characteristics and reported enjoyment. This means designers of display technologies and related systems that enable interactive TV ought to work harder to satisfy users regarding the fidelity of video rendering on their screen. Newer display technologies such as LED (light-emitting diode) and AMOLED (active-matrix organic light-emitting diode) provide avenues for further research. Researchers from psychology and communication may also examine how individual differences such as computer literacy, educational attainment and age affect user acceptance of display technologies that offer slightly superior quality at a heavy price. Limitations and Future Research Key limitations of the present study include several “wow factors” presented in the experimental setting that might have significantly affected participants’ viewing experience. Our results showed that participants’ reported level of enjoyment for all three monitors was relatively high (i.e., S-PVA=8.76, S-IPS=7.50, TN=7.58) on the 10-point Likert scale regardless of the panel type, which led us to suspect that there could have been additional factors, other than the panel type, that contributed to greater enjoyment. The first wow factor is the screen-size of the monitors used during the experiment: one 27-inch monitor and two 26-inch monitors. According to a sales report released by the Danawa website, a price-comparison service provider in Seoul, 22-inch and 19-inch monitors were accounted for 39% and 32% of the domestic market for LCD monitors respectively (Hong, 2008). In other words, the monitors used in the experiment were more likely to be larger than participants’ own monitors at home or work. Participants entering the lab could have been overwhelmed by the huge monitors presented in front of them, and initially formed positive impressions that encouraged them to believe their viewing experience was overall enjoyable regardless of the panel type. The high audio fidelity provided by the 5.1- channel surrounding sound headphones is another wow factor. In a study conducted by Reeves and Nass (1996) analyzing the effects of high vs. low audio fidelity on participants’ attention, memory, and evaluation, participants who watched a movie with high-fidelity audio surrounding system felt that they were more immersed in the movie and the video segments were more likable and realistic. The study also found that audio fidelity was much more powerful than video fidelity. Participants in the present study thus could have been positively affected by high audio fidelity delivered by the 5.1-channel surrounding sound headphones, making it difficult to measure the sole effects of panel type on participants’ overall viewing experience. Another notable limitation is that the present study allowed first-person point of view in the gaming condition. While playing the game in first-person is likely to result in greater involvement and immersion in the game (Tamborini et al., 2001), the movie was shot and

Authors: Kim, Ki Joon. and Sundar, S. Shyam.
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to  be  worth  the  added  expense.  But  then,  our 
interaction  findings  indicate  that  IPS  panel, 
which  is  half  the  price,  will  do  just  as  well  for 
gaming  (and  presumably  other  interactive  TV 
experiences)  as  long  as  the  user  is  computer-
Unexpectedly,  computer  literacy  turned  out 
to  be  quite  a  significant  predictor.  For  gaming, 
participants with higher computer literacy level 
were  more  satisfied  with  their  overall  viewing 
experience  while  experiencing  greater  realism 
and presence and were more satisfied with their 
overall  viewing  experience.  However,  a  reverse 
relationship was found for movie-watching. We 
may  interpret  this  as  follows:  individuals  with 
high computer literacy level tend to focus more 
on  active  interaction  with  technology  (i.e., 
playing  the  game  using  both  mouse  and 
keyboard  simultaneously),  whereas  those  with 
low  computer  literacy  level  focus  more  on  the 
content  (i.e.,  movie)  delivered  to  them.  This 
provides valuable insights  for future studies on 
the  relationship  between  computer  literacy  and 
technology acceptance. 
The implications of the present study suggest 
that  display  engineers  and  manufacturers 
should  be  looking  more  carefully  at  how  panel 
characteristics (e.g., response rate, viewing angle, 
and contrast ratio) affect and interact with users’ 
viewing/interaction  experience  and  overall 
enjoyment.  The  main  effect  for  stimulus  type 
suggests  that  interactive  use  of  TV  display 
systems,  such  as  in  games,  leads  to  inherently 
lower  ratings  of  panel  characteristics  and 
reported  enjoyment.  This  means  designers  of 
display  technologies  and  related  systems  that 
enable  interactive  TV  ought  to  work  harder  to 
satisfy  users  regarding  the  fidelity  of  video 
rendering  on  their  screen.  Newer  display 
technologies such as LED (light-emitting diode) 
and  AMOLED  (active-matrix  organic  light-
emitting  diode)  provide  avenues  for  further 
research.  Researchers  from  psychology  and 
communication  may  also  examine  how 
individual differences such as computer literacy, 
educational  attainment  and  age  affect  user 
acceptance  of  display  technologies  that  offer 
slightly superior quality at a heavy price. 
Limitations and Future Research 
Key  limitations  of  the  present  study  include 
several  “wow  factors”  presented  in  the 
significantly  affected  participants’  viewing 
participants’  reported  level  of  enjoyment  for  all 
three  monitors  was  relatively  high  (i.e.,  S-
PVA=8.76, S-IPS=7.50, TN=7.58) on the 10-point 
Likert  scale  regardless  of  the  panel  type,  which 
led  us  to  suspect  that  there  could  have  been 
additional  factors,  other  than  the  panel  type, 
that contributed to greater enjoyment. 
The first wow factor is the screen-size of the 
monitors  used  during  the  experiment:  one  27-
inch  monitor  and  two  26-inch  monitors. 
According  to  a  sales  report  released  by  the 
Danawa  website,  a  price-comparison  service 
provider in Seoul, 22-inch and 19-inch monitors 
were  accounted  for  39%  and  32%  of  the 
domestic market for LCD monitors respectively 
(Hong, 2008). In other words, the monitors used 
in the experiment were more likely to be larger 
than  participants’  own  monitors  at  home  or 
work.  Participants  entering  the  lab  could  have 
been  overwhelmed  by  the  huge  monitors 
presented in front of them, and initially formed 
positive  impressions  that  encouraged  them  to 
believe  their  viewing  experience  was  overall 
enjoyable regardless of the panel type. 
The  high  audio fidelity provided  by  the  5.1-
channel  surrounding  sound  headphones  is 
another  wow  factor.  In  a  study  conducted  by 
Reeves and Nass (1996) analyzing the effects of 
high  vs.  low  audio  fidelity  on  participants’ 
attention,  memory,  and  evaluation,  participants 
who  watched  a  movie  with  high-fidelity  audio 
surrounding  system  felt  that  they  were  more 
immersed in the movie and the video segments 
were  more  likable  and  realistic.  The  study  also 
found  that  audio  fidelity  was  much  more 
powerful than video fidelity. Participants in the 
present  study  thus  could  have  been  positively 
affected  by  high  audio fidelity delivered  by  the 
5.1-channel  surrounding  sound  headphones, 
making it difficult to measure the sole effects of 
panel  type  on  participants’  overall  viewing 
Another notable limitation is that the present 
study  allowed  first-person  point  of  view  in  the 
gaming  condition.  While  playing  the  game  in 
first-person  is  likely  to  result  in  greater 
involvement  and  immersion  in  the  game 
(Tamborini et al., 2001), the movie was shot and 

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