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Effects of media type, news topic and celebrity type on use of media frames
Unformatted Document Text:  H1c: framing of attributed celebrity in popular journalism is highly associated around sexual scandal, compared with the other two types of celebrities. H1d: framing of attributed celebrities is more associated with moral judges compared with ascribed and achieved celebrity. H1e: framing of ascribed and achieved celebrities are more associated with economic frame compared with attributed celebrities. Media personalization and celebrity culture Here we employ popular journalism rather than tabloid journalism to refer to Hong Kong mass media. Despite the fact that tabloid journalism has been “consistently seen by critics as inferior, appealing to base instincts and public demand for sensationalism” (Bird 2009), what worth researcher’s attention is the worldwide trend in media industry– tabloidization. Both Bird(2009) and Gans (2009) agree that tabloid journalism as a pejorative term is useless and diverts attention from the actual problems of journalism. Actually Gans(2009) would rather call it popular journalism instead of tabloid journalism, arguing that popularization takes place in all sectors of society and tabloid journalism can be legitimate desires and voice of the people, and might be direct and effective news if well done. However, the search of sensationalism has been widely observed in popular journalism, as Boorstin(1973) suggested with the term “pseydo-event”, sensationalism is what mass employ to respond to the routine and predictability of daily life. Before we start the study of the uses in media frames in popular journalism, we developed a measurement of media personalization to explore to which extent media are personalized, which laid the foundation of our study of framing celebrity. Personalization in various areas such as politics and media has been observed during

Authors: Liu, Jing.
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H1cframing of attributed celebrity in popular journalism is highly associated 
around sexual scandal, compared with the other two types of celebrities. 
H1d:  framing  of  attributed  celebrities  is  more  associated  with  moral  judges 
compared with ascribed and achieved celebrity.   
H1e:  framing  of  ascribed  and  achieved  celebrities  are  more  associated  with 
economic frame compared with attributed celebrities. 
Media personalization and celebrity culture 
Here  we  employ  popular  journalism  rather  than  tabloid  journalism  to  refer  to 
Hong  Kong  mass  media.  Despite  the  fact  that  tabloid  journalism  has  been 
“consistently seen by critics as inferior, appealing to base instincts and public demand 
for  sensationalism”  (Bird  2009),  what  worth  researcher’s  attention  is  the  worldwide 
trend in media industry– tabloidization. Both Bird(2009) and Gans (2009) agree that 
tabloid journalism as a pejorative term is useless and diverts attention from the actual 
problems of journalism. Actually Gans(2009) would rather call it popular journalism 
instead of tabloid journalism, arguing that popularization takes place in all sectors of 
society and tabloid journalism can be legitimate desires and voice of the people, and 
might  be  direct  and  effective  news  if  well  done.  However,  the  search  of 
sensationalism  has  been  widely  observed  in  popular  journalism,  as  Boorstin(1973) 
suggested  with  the  term  “pseydo-event”,  sensationalism  is  what  mass  employ  to 
respond to the routine and predictability of daily life.   
Before we start the study of the uses in media frames in popular journalism, we 
developed a measurement of media personalization to explore to which extent media 
are  personalized,  which  laid  the  foundation  of  our  study  of  framing  celebrity. 
Personalization in various areas such as politics and media has been observed during 

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