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Effects of media type, news topic and celebrity type on use of media frames
Unformatted Document Text:  competing news weeklies with top circulation in Hong Kong, Next Magazine and the Eastweek, are selected as the sample pool and stratified sampling are adopted in this study. The reason why we choose news weeklies rather than daily newspaper is that they are more representative in popular journalism in study of framing of celebrity. As there are two books for each issue per week, we select two sets of sample from the pool of ten-year long news weeklies. In consideration of proportion, 8 copies are selected for each year for both Book A and B, in sum, there would be 331 cover stories selected. As the Next Magazine was launched in 1991 and Eastweek one year later, there are 175 copies of Next Magazine and 156 copies of Eastweek selected in the sample. We divide the 20 years into three periods based on some politically significant issue: the sovereignty handover of Hong Kong to the Beijing regime in 1997, the July 1 st march of half-million Hong Kong citizens in 2003. Frame measurement To measure to extent to which certain frames occurs across different news topics and different celebrity types, 26 indicators are developed based on previous studies on frame and framing effects(Cohen 1963; Dowker and Strauss 1977; Gamson and Modigliani 1989; Entman 1991; Gamson 1992; Neuman, Just et al. 1992; Entman 1993; Pan and Kosicki 1993; Jenness and Broad 1994; Zald 1996; Tucker 1998; Semetko and Valkenburg 2000; Simon and Xenos 2000; Tewksbury, Jones et al. 2000; Callaghan and Schnell 2001; De Vreese, Peter et al. 2001; Kuypers 2002; Shah, Watts et al. 2002; Entman 2004; Boykoff 2006). A minimum of three questions are developed for each frame. Two coders are trained to answer the 26 question in reference of a five-point scale to measure the degree of visibility of each item in the news stories. The inter-coder reliability, conducted on a subsample of 30 news stories for each of the 26 framing questions, was in a relative reasonable level 76%.

Authors: Liu, Jing.
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competing news weeklies with top circulation in Hong Kong, Next Magazine and the 
Eastweek, are selected as the sample pool and stratified sampling are adopted in this 
study.  The reason  why  we  choose news weeklies rather than daily newspaper is  that 
they are more representative in popular journalism in study of framing of celebrity.   
As  there  are  two  books  for  each  issue  per  week,  we  select  two  sets  of  sample 
from the pool of ten-year long news weeklies. In consideration of proportion, 8 copies 
are selected for each year for both Book A and B, in sum, there would be 331 cover 
stories selected. As the Next Magazine was launched in 1991 and Eastweek one year 
later, there are 175 copies of  Next Magazine and 156 copies of Eastweek selected in 
the  sample.  We  divide  the  20  years  into  three  periods  based  on  some  politically 
significant  issue:  the  sovereignty  handover  of  Hong  Kong  to  the  Beijing  regime  in 
1997, the July 1
st
 march of half-million Hong Kong citizens in 2003.   
Frame measurement   
 
To measure to extent to which certain frames occurs across different news topics 
and different celebrity types, 26 indicators are developed based on previous studies on 
frame and framing effects(Cohen 1963; Dowker and Strauss 1977; Gamson and 
Modigliani 1989; Entman 1991; Gamson 1992; Neuman, Just et al. 1992; Entman 
1993; Pan and Kosicki 1993; Jenness and Broad 1994; Zald 1996; Tucker 1998; 
Semetko and Valkenburg 2000; Simon and Xenos 2000; Tewksbury, Jones et al. 2000; 
Callaghan and Schnell 2001; De Vreese, Peter et al. 2001; Kuypers 2002; Shah, Watts 
et al. 2002; Entman 2004; Boykoff 2006). A minimum of three questions are 
developed for each frame. Two coders are trained to answer the 26 question in 
reference of a five-point scale to measure the degree of visibility of each item in the 
news stories. The inter-coder reliability, conducted on a subsample of 30 news stories 
for each of the 26 framing questions, was in a relative reasonable level 76%.   


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