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Effects of media type, news topic and celebrity type on use of media frames
Unformatted Document Text:  “ framing has four locations in mass communication: the communicator, the text, the receiver and the culture”(1993). Mass media, as center agencies of the culture industry, play an important role in the construction and destruction of celebrity. As Alexander and Jacobs suggested, the globalization of media has increased further the influence and impact of celebrities to the point where many are seen as representative characters who "resonate with the society's culture" (1998). In Callaghan & Schnell(2001)’s analysis of elite policy discourse, they found that both sets of political players employed several interpretative issue frames and worked hard to put their preferred themes on the agenda, and thus recognized the dual role of media in frame setting: as institutional players who construct and promote unique frames of their own, as well as a conduit for the dissemination of other social players’ frames. Moreover, Cohen(1963) and Patterson(1998) hold similar views. Media, as the center stage of social construction, always present the results negotiated among different social forces. While celebrity, as a particular form of social construction, are inevitably influenced and shaped by contemporary social structure, that’s why the study of framing of different type of celebrity according to how their fame is achieved and used are significant for studies in mass media and culture. Klapp(1962)’s work, as kind of specification and extension of Marshall’s work, has several similarities with the sociology of Erving Goffman(1966; 1974; 1982), which laid the foundation for our study of the framing of different type of celebrities in mass media. Parallel to the Klapp’s research, Goffman takes a dramaturgical approach to analyze human interactions in everyday life, which are explored in terms of scripts, roles and performance. According to Goffman(1974), frames are to help audiences “locate, perceive, identify and label” the flow of information around them. Definition of framing are extended and specified by several scholars after

Authors: Liu, Jing.
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“ framing has four locations in mass communication: the communicator, the text, the 
receiver  and  the  culture”(1993).  Mass  media,  as  center  agencies  of  the  culture 
industry,  play  an  important  role  in  the  construction  and  destruction  of  celebrity.  As 
Alexander and Jacobs suggested, the globalization of media has increased further the 
influence and impact of celebrities to the point where many are seen as representative 
characters who "resonate with the society's culture" (1998).   
In Callaghan & Schnell(2001)’s analysis of elite policy discourse, they found that 
both sets of political players employed several interpretative issue frames and worked 
hard to put their preferred themes on the agenda, and thus recognized the dual role of 
media  in  frame  setting:  as  institutional  players  who  construct  and  promote  unique 
frames of their own, as well as a conduit for the dissemination of other social players’ 
frames.  Moreover,  Cohen(1963)  and  Patterson(1998)  hold  similar  views.  Media,  as 
the  center  stage  of  social  construction,  always  present  the  results  negotiated  among 
different social forces. While celebrity, as a particular form of social construction, are 
inevitably  influenced  and  shaped  by  contemporary  social  structure,  that’s  why  the 
study of framing of different type of celebrity according to how their fame is achieved 
and used are significant for studies in mass media and culture.     
Klapp(1962)’s  work,  as  kind  of  specification  and  extension  of  Marshall’s  work, 
has  several  similarities  with  the  sociology  of  Erving  Goffman(1966;  1974;  1982), 
which laid the foundation for our study of the framing of different type of celebrities 
in  mass  media.  Parallel  to  the  Klapp’s  research,  Goffman  takes  a  dramaturgical 
approach to analyze human interactions in everyday life, which are explored in terms 
of  scripts,  roles  and  performance.  According  to  Goffman(1974),  frames  are  to  help 
audiences “locate, perceive, identify and label” the flow of information around them.   
Definition  of  framing  are  extended  and  specified  by  several  scholars  after 

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