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Social Network Analysis: A Mixed-Methodological Approach
Unformatted Document Text:  Running Head: MIXED-METHOD NETWORK ANALYSIS networks in his book Communication Power (2009).  In this book, Castells identifies four forms  of power in social networks: networking power, network power, networked power, and network- making power (2009, p. 42).  Networking power addresses the power of individuals and  organizations included within a social network that is based on the role of exclusion/inclusion.  Network power is dependent on network rules and norms.  The rules set the structure of the  network and therefore control the actions of its members.  With networked power, “each network  defines its own power relationship depending on its programmed goals” (Castells, 2009, p. 44),  therefore power stems from network relationships.  According to Castells, network-making  power depends on two aspects: programmers and switchers.  Programmers have “the ability to  constitute network(s), and to program/reprogram the network(s) in terms of goals assigned to the  network” (2009, p. 45).  Switchers have “the ability to connect and ensure the cooperation of  different networks by sharing common goals and combining resources, while fending off  competition from other networks by setting up strategic cooperation” (2009, p. 45).  According  to Castells these two roles hold the most crucial power within a network; however, all of these  types of power hold the relational power of one individual to impose her will on another through  larger structures of domination created by societal institutions. The second foundational assumption of this paper is to approach social network analysis  via digital networks and media.  Social network analysis has been found to be well adaptive  towards studying online network interactions.  According to Hogan (2008) this is due to the  nature of online interaction and the flexibility of digital information.  The structures of social  networks and components of online interaction overlap in three central concepts: hubs, nodes,  and links.  This overlap lends an ease of use of social network analysis to examine online  interactions.  The flexibility of digital information when examining these interactions also makes  4

Authors: Vincent, Cindy.
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Running Head: MIXED-METHOD NETWORK ANALYSIS

networks in his book Communication Power (2009).  In this book, Castells identifies four forms 

of power in social networks: networking power, network power, networked power, and network-

making power (2009, p. 42).  Networking power addresses the power of individuals and 

organizations included within a social network that is based on the role of exclusion/inclusion. 

Network power is dependent on network rules and norms.  The rules set the structure of the 

network and therefore control the actions of its members.  With networked power, “each network 

defines its own power relationship depending on its programmed goals” (Castells, 2009, p. 44), 

therefore power stems from network relationships.  According to Castells, network-making 

power depends on two aspects: programmers and switchers.  Programmers have “the ability to 

constitute network(s), and to program/reprogram the network(s) in terms of goals assigned to the 

network” (2009, p. 45).  Switchers have “the ability to connect and ensure the cooperation of 

different networks by sharing common goals and combining resources, while fending off 

competition from other networks by setting up strategic cooperation” (2009, p. 45).  According 

to Castells these two roles hold the most crucial power within a network; however, all of these 

types of power hold the relational power of one individual to impose her will on another through 

larger structures of domination created by societal institutions.

The second foundational assumption of this paper is to approach social network analysis 

via digital networks and media.  Social network analysis has been found to be well adaptive 

towards studying online network interactions.  According to Hogan (2008) this is due to the 

nature of online interaction and the flexibility of digital information.  The structures of social 

networks and components of online interaction overlap in three central concepts: hubs, nodes, 

and links.  This overlap lends an ease of use of social network analysis to examine online 

interactions.  The flexibility of digital information when examining these interactions also makes 

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