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"They never do this to men": College women athletes' responses to sexualized images of professional female athletes
Unformatted Document Text:  Blount, R. (April 16, 2007). Selling sex & sports isn't working. Minneapolis-St. Paul Star Tribune. Retrieved February 24, 2011 from Boyd, T. C., & Shank, M. D. (2004). Athletes as product endorsers: the effect of gender and product relatedness. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 13(2), 82-93. Buteau, M. (September 16, 2010). WNBA owners make history, not profits. In . Retrieved March 20, 2011 from . Byerly, C. (2007). Situating “the other”: women, racial and sexual minorities in the media. In Creedon, P. J. & Cramer, J. (Eds.), Women in mass communication, 3rd edition. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage. Cahn, S. K. (1993). From the "muscle moll" to the "butch" ballplayer: Mannishness, lesbianism, and homophobia in U.S. women's sport. FS: Feminist Studies 19(2), 343-368. Carty, V. (2005). Textual portrayals of female athletes: liberation or nuanced forms of patriarchy. Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies, 26(2). Creedon, P. J. (1994). Women, media and sport: Challenging gender values. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage. Creedon, P. J. & Cramer, J. (2007). Women in mass communication, 3rd edition. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage. Cunningham, G., Fink, J., & Kenix, L. (2008). Choosing an endorser for a women’s sporting event: the interaction of attractiveness and expertise. Sex Roles, 58(5). Daddario, G. (1994). Chilly scenes of the 1992 winter games: the mass media and the marginalization of female athletes. Sociology of Sport Journal, 11(3), 275-288. Daniels, E. (2009). Sex objects, athletes, and sexy athletes: how media representations of women athletes can impact adolescent girls and college women. Journal of Adolescent Research, 24(4). Drape, J. (August 14, 2004). Lots of skin but not much fuss as Olympians strike pinup pose. In Retrieved March 8, 2011 from: . Duncan, M. (1990). Sports photographs and sexual difference: Images of women and men in the 1984 and 1988 Olympic Games. Sociology of Sport Journal 7. Dutot, C. L. (2001). Femininity, sexuality and sport: A case study of female inter-university varsity athletes. Masters Abstracts International, 39(2), 419-419. Elyachar, R., Moag, L., Lang, T., Adey, M., and Johnson, M. (2002). The growth of women’s sports. In Retrieved March 20, 2011 from Entman, R. (1993). Framing: Toward clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of Communication 43(4). Retrieved October 25, 2010 from ESPN (2009). The 25 Biggest Sports Flops. In Retrieved January 19, 2011 from . Freedman, J. (2010). The 50 highest-earning American athletes. In Retrieved March 20, 2011 from 2010/index.html .

Authors: Everbach, Tracy. and Mumah, Jenny.
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Blount, R. (April 16, 2007). Selling sex & sports isn't working. Minneapolis-St. Paul Star 
Tribune. Retrieved February 24, 2011 from 
Boyd, T. C., & Shank, M. D. (2004). Athletes as product endorsers: the effect of gender and 
product relatedness. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 13(2), 82-93.
Buteau, M. (September 16, 2010). WNBA owners make history, not profits. In 
. Retrieved March 20, 2011 from 
Byerly, C. (2007). Situating “the other”: women, racial and sexual minorities in the media. In 
Creedon, P. J. & Cramer, J. (Eds.), Women in mass communication, 3rd edition. 
Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.
Cahn, S. K. (1993). From the "muscle moll" to the "butch" ballplayer: Mannishness, lesbianism, 
and homophobia in U.S. women's sport. FS: Feminist Studies 19(2), 343-368.
Carty, V. (2005). Textual portrayals of female athletes: liberation or nuanced forms of patriarchy. 
Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies, 26(2).
Creedon, P. J. (1994). Women, media and sport: Challenging gender values. Thousand Oaks, 
California: Sage.
Creedon, P. J. & Cramer, J. (2007). Women in mass communication, 3rd edition. Thousand Oaks, 
California: Sage.
Cunningham, G., Fink, J., & Kenix, L. (2008). Choosing an endorser for a women’s sporting 
event: the interaction of attractiveness and expertise. Sex Roles, 58(5).
Daddario, G. (1994). Chilly scenes of the 1992 winter games: the mass media and the 
marginalization of female athletes. Sociology of Sport Journal, 11(3), 275-288.
Daniels, E. (2009). Sex objects, athletes, and sexy athletes: how media representations of women 
athletes can impact adolescent girls and college women. Journal of Adolescent Research
Drape, J. (August 14, 2004). Lots of skin but not much fuss as Olympians strike pinup pose. In Retrieved March 8, 2011 from: 
Duncan, M. (1990). Sports photographs and sexual difference: Images of women and men in the 
1984 and 1988 Olympic Games. Sociology of Sport Journal 7.
Dutot, C. L. (2001). Femininity, sexuality and sport: A case study of female inter-university 
varsity athletes. Masters Abstracts International, 39(2), 419-419.
Elyachar, R., Moag, L., Lang, T., Adey, M., and Johnson, M. (2002). The growth of women’s 
sports. In Retrieved March 20, 2011 from
Entman, R. (1993). Framing: Toward clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of 
Communication 43(4). Retrieved October 25, 2010 from 
ESPN (2009). The 25 Biggest Sports Flops. In Retrieved January 19, 2011 from 
Freedman, J. (2010). The 50 highest-earning American athletes. In 
Retrieved March 20, 2011 from 

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