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"They never do this to men": College women athletes' responses to sexualized images of professional female athletes
Unformatted Document Text:  Media play an important role in influencing public opinion on athletes and women in general. By limiting coverage of women’s sports, they frame it as unimportant (Perotti, 2009; Tuggle, 1997).This underrepresentation could give the impression that women are absent in sports; thus distorting reality and perhaps confusing girls and women that fame requires something other than athleticism (Grau, Roselli & Taylor, 2007; Wood, 1994; Robertson, 2001, Tuggle, 1997). Tuggle (1997) argues that such underrepresentation could also “frame female sports as less deserving of coverage than men's competition.” Entman (1993) maintains that “framing essentially involves selection and salience. To frame is to select some aspects of perceived reality and make them more salient in a communicating text in order to promote a particular problem definition, causal interpretation, moral evaluation and treatment recommendation for the item described” (p.52). Media framing of women’s sports is important since mass media are a pervasive influence on people’s opinion of gender roles (Wood, 1994). Coverage of women’s sports by journalists has been consistently low. The Women’s Sports Foundation at Vanderbilt University reported in 1997 that in three newspapers: The Tennessean, USA Today and The New York Times, women received only 11 percent of sports coverage. Another study of ESPN’s “Sports Center” and CNN’s “Sports Tonight” found only 5 percent of coverage devoted to women’s sports, especially individual sports, thus giving readers the false impression that women do not participate in team sports (Tuggle, 1997; Lee and Choi, 2003, p. 4). Photographs are equally a strong means of framing (Lee and Choi, 2003). Gibson (1991) points out photos tell certain stories better than words (as cited in Lee and Choi, 2003, p. 5). By publishing fewer pictures of female athletes engaging in sports than their male counterparts,

Authors: Everbach, Tracy. and Mumah, Jenny.
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Media play an important role in influencing public opinion on athletes and women in 
general. By limiting coverage of women’s sports, they frame it as unimportant (Perotti, 2009; 
Tuggle, 1997).This underrepresentation could give the impression that women are absent in 
sports; thus distorting reality and perhaps confusing girls and women that fame requires 
something other than athleticism (Grau, Roselli & Taylor, 2007; Wood, 1994; Robertson, 2001, 
Tuggle, 1997). Tuggle (1997) argues that such underrepresentation could also “frame female 
sports as less deserving of coverage than men's competition.” 
Entman (1993) maintains that “framing essentially involves selection and salience. To 
frame is to select some aspects of perceived reality and make them more salient in a 
communicating text  in order to promote a particular problem definition, causal interpretation, 
moral evaluation and treatment recommendation for the item described” (p.52). Media framing 
of women’s sports is important since mass media are a pervasive influence on people’s opinion 
of gender roles (Wood, 1994).
Coverage of women’s sports by journalists has been consistently low. The Women’s 
Sports Foundation at Vanderbilt University reported in 1997 that in three newspapers: The 
TennesseanUSA Today and The New York Times, women received only 11 percent of sports 
coverage. Another study of ESPN’s “Sports Center” and CNN’s “Sports Tonight” found only 5 
percent of coverage devoted to women’s sports, especially individual sports, thus giving readers 
the false impression that women do not participate in team sports (Tuggle, 1997; Lee and Choi, 
2003, p. 4). 
Photographs are equally a strong means of framing (Lee and Choi, 2003). Gibson (1991) 
points out photos tell certain stories better than words (as cited in Lee and Choi, 2003, p. 5). By 
publishing fewer pictures of female athletes engaging in sports than their male counterparts, 


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